代写essay-同伴指导和基于项目的学习。基于项目的同伴指导和学习的概念早在1975年就开始了。同年，埃里克·马祖尔(Eric Mazur)对一个物理概念感到沮丧。他多次向学生解释这个概念，学生们甚至无法理解这个概念的基本解释(Headden, 2013)。他要求他们转向坐在他们旁边的人，说服对方对这个概念做出正确的解释。Mazur(2009)的一项研究发现，即使是如此微小的同伴合作，即使话题极其复杂，也能让学生们更好地理解和参与。
The concept of peer instruction and learning based on project started as early as 1975. It was the same year when Eric Mazur got frustrated over a physics concept. He had engaged in explaining this to the students a number of times and they were not able to understand even the basic explanation of the concept (Headden, 2013). He asked them to turn to the person sitting next to them, and persuade each other to arrive at the correct explanation of the concept. It was found by a research conducted by Mazur (2009) that even such minor efforts of peer collaboration result in greater understanding and engagement among students even if the topic is extremely complex. This method was termed by him as peer instruction and he did believe in following an approach in which an educator reads out the content loudly in front of the whole class (Bozalek, 2013). The students were asked to read the text book and watch some videos before they came to class, so they could consider spending some time for discussion about the content with one another, rather than just going through and listening to any lecture (Bishop and Verleger, 2013). It had been noted by Mazur that as educators obtain expertise across the fields, they forget which types of breakdowns and misconceptions are faced by students in learning. And hence, more often students obtain a better position of knowledge establishment by supporting one another (Berrett, 2012).
It has been found by Sams and Bergmann (2012) that following the approach of flipped classroom was extremely advantageous to engage the students while maintaining their focus and interest. This was concluded by the researchers after they surveyed students for understanding their perception on flipped classroom approach (Herried and Schiller, 2013). As reported by a number of other related surveys, students who had been unfocused, restless or bored previously ended up becoming highly engaged (Bergmann et al., 2011). This change came forward because the educators did not just stand and talk with the kids. This led towards evaporation of issues underlying management of classroom.
When the students had active engagement within the classroom, they had been highly encouraged for expressing themselves through communication and participation in the classroom. The energy of the classroom used to be highly enhanced, and in such a scenario, it resulted in the translation of active participation (Bergmann and Sams, 2012). It was also found by Tucker (2012) that the approach of flipped classroom towards active learning assisted them to deal with the challenge of asking students, questions and motivating them to be engaged in class (Jenkins, 2012). Instead of reminding the students for listening and sitting still, Tucker (2012) started to motivate students for speaking up.
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