代写论文-技术能力的创新。现在，技术能力与操作能力并肩工作。因此，要使创新能力存在，组织就必须有明确的具体运作职能。每个组织都有某种形式的运作能力。这是因为所有的组织都参与了过程或产品开发(Zawislak et al.， 2012)。在运营能力和创新方面，公司有特定的生产流程。通常，这些知识非常依赖于路径，组织通过实践和行动来学习它们。现在对于想要创新的组织来说，他们必须跳出传统的能力去思考。组织在应对突发事件时，有时会学到这一点。在某些情况下，组织通过向竞争对手学习来为突发事件做积极的准备来学习(Romijn和Albaladejo, 2002)。无论这些组织是在对抗突发事件，还是在积极地进行规划，它们都会发展出一些彼此不同的能力。这些独特的运营能力在创新能力的发展中发挥着强大的作用(Alegre and Chiva, 2013)。
Management capability is the next significant aspect. Where in the past, the roles and functions of managers were developed with more specific chain of command with a very visible leader, while in the current times managerial capabilities and leadership are defined in a different manner. It is necessary for organizations to work on capabilities that are more decentralized. Managerial services in the past were more economic oriented and were systemic (Zawislak et al., 2012). While dealing with uncertainty, such management usually followed a strong set of rules and protocols which ended up challenging the production of dynamic capabilities for the organization. However, over time, management capability has gone on to include more dynamic alignment. In the innovation context, leadership and management are seen to be allowed a more flexible role. Although the presence of the role itself is not debated, how the role applies to the workplace context will differ. This application is based on the innovation capabilities the organization requires (Chiva et al., 2014).
Next to management capabilities, transaction capability is something core to a business and hence for innovation capability to be successful, it is necessary to have a thorough transaction capability as well. Transaction capabilities are everything that company might be doing to conduct the business. It is the set of actions that are associated with a business. Therefore, it includes anything from marketing, bargaining and sales etc. (Lillis et al., 2015). Transaction capabilities are improved by the presence of adequate governance capabilities. It is necessary for there to be some form of transaction capability development internally that can be improved upon or changes based on dynamic necessities. Firms that can align the transaction capabilities better generally do well in their jobs and are seen to be expanding well. Therefore, innovation in the context of transactional capabilities would be successful. Now innovation will not necessarily build upon one or two of the capabilities, it could be holistically drawn from all core competencies (Fernández-Mesa and Alegre, 2015).
Three propositions have been identified by researchers when understanding innovative capability development. The understanding based on these propositions is that it is normal for organizations to have all these core capabilities. However, for innovation capability, one of these core capabilities would be stronger than the rest (Lin et al., 2013).
Some organizations might have a more stronger technology development capability or alternatively an organization would have a much stronger transactional capability. It is for the organization to decide which capability works for them. Once they understand this, then they make use of that capability to plan for innovation. For instance, two companies that fit this profile are the Sentinelle Medical Inc. and Visual Sonics. The two companies are technology firms and hence capitalized on their technology capabilities to improve their innovations. However, once their innovations were successful, they then moved on to developing other capabilities such as transaction and management. A similar argument can be placed in the context of Coca Cola. It had a well-developed transaction capability but was not so good with the technology innovation capability. To be successful in innovation, it is hence critical that firms should be dominant in at least one of the capabilities. Firms in developing their innovative capabilities might start from technological capabilities or transactional capabilities. They then go on to develop their operational and managerial capabilities. In addition to discovering which capability works for them when innovating, the company will have to work on which capabilities to reduce in dominance, “the job of innovation leaders–and of corporate strategists–isn’t just to choose which capabilities to focus on. They also have to decide which ones don’t matter […] If a certain competency has nothing to do with how you’re positioning yourself in your market and creating value for your customers, then don’t oversupply it. Put your energy elsewhere, where you are going to differentiate” (Barry and Cesare, 2011, para. 9).