代写论文价格-成年蚜虫携带的共生体

  代写论文价格-成年蚜虫携带的共生体。一些种类的蚂蚁被认为是农业蚜虫,同时通过它们所吃的植物为它们提供保护。蚂蚁吃蚜虫排出的蜜露,通过终止它们的消化道。蚁后离开原来的蚁穴去建立一个新的蚁穴时,会带一个蚜虫蛋,以便在新的蚁穴的地下找到一群新的蚜虫。这些蚂蚁在农场帮助保护蚜虫,因为它们击退了蚜虫的捕食者。一些蚜虫群落被认为是其他细菌的共生体,因为它们是兼性的。尽管一些研究已经指出了它们的水平传播机会,但它们仍然存在垂直传播。这发生在一个支系到另一个支系之间,并可能从一个物种传到另一个物种。接下来论文范文代写论文价格-成年蚜虫携带的共生体分享给留学生阅读。

  Some species of ants are known to be farming aphids, while providing protection to them across the plants they are eating. Ants eat the honeydew released by aphids by terminating their alimentary canals. This is considered as a mutualistic relationship. As these ants can be seen dairying, the aphids are milked by them while stroking their back with their own antennae. Some species of ant farming are known to be storing and gathering the eggs of aphid within the nests keeping them warm during winter. During the spring season, the newly hatched aphids are carried by the ants to the place. Some of these species such as the yellow meadow ants succeed in managing aphids in large herds while they fulfil their purpose of feeding in the colony of ant under the roots of the plants.

  Queens who leave their previous colony to form a new one take an egg of aphid for locating a new herd of aphids at underground level within the new colony. These ants which farm help in the protection of aphids as they fight off the predators of aphid. Some colonies of aphid are known to be harboring the symbionts of other bacteria known as secondary symbionts because of their considerably facultative status. There is a vertical transmission of these even though some researches have stated the chance of horizontal transmission. This takes place from one lineage to the other and probably being transmitted from species to others. In the overall context, 89.3 per cent of females were known to be showing behaviour of flight in the tunnel of wind. Out of the females showing behaviour of flying, the share that performed a flight in orientation had been significantly greater in comparison with the share which did not. According to the analysis, the share was 64.2 per cent vs. 35.8 per cent, and hence, X2 = 8.99, d.f. = 1, P< 0.05. Among the females performing an oriented response of flight, a significant variation had been found in the location of landing between the real plants and dummy. According to this analysis, the ratio is 5 per cent vs. 95 per cent as a result of which X2 = 71.09, d.f. = 1, P< 0.05. Among the females landing over real plants, there seems to be no significant variation between uninfested and infested plants, although a trend to land over infested plants had been noted. There seems to be a significant variation in the rate at which there are oriented flights among the two species of wasp.

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