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essay格式:文献综述的正文写作

essay格式:文献综述的正文写作

之前我们讲到过什么是文献综述,分为哪几部分。在写作的过程中,如何更加正确的理解到文献综述的写作摘要和方法,本篇内容将要详解文献综述的正文部分内容,希望本篇内容能够帮助到同学们。

主题部分是综述的主体。其写法多样,没有固定的格式。可按文献发表的年代顺序综述,也可按不同的问题进行综述,还可按不同的观点进行比较综述,不管用哪一种格式综述,都要将所搜集到的文献资料归纳、整理及分析比较,阐明引言部分所确立综述主题的历史背景、现状和发展方向,以及对这些问题的评述,主题部分应特别注意代表性强、具有科学性和创造性的文献引用和评述。主题内容根据综述的类型可以灵活选择结构安排。

正文,是综述的重点,写法上没有固定的格式,只要能较好地表达综合的内容,作者可创造性采用诸多形式。正文主要包括论据和论证两个部分,通过提出问题、分析问题和解决问题,比较不同学者对同一问题的看法及其理论依据,进一步阐明问题的来龙去脉和作者自己的见解。

essay格式:文献综述的正文写作

当然,作者也可从问题发生的历史背景、目前现状、发展方向等提出文献的不同观点。正文部分可根据内容的多少可分为若干个小标题分别论述。小结,是对综述正文部分作扼要的总结,作者应对各种观点进行综合评价,提出自己的看法,指出存在的问题及今后发展的方向和展望。内容单纯的综述也可不写小结。

开门见山,不绕圈子。避免大篇幅地讲述历史渊源和立题研究过程。

言简意赅,突出重点。不应过多叙述同行熟知的及教科书中的常识性内容,确有必要提及他人的研究成果和基本原理时,只需以参考引文的形式标出即可。在引言中提示本文的工作和观点时,意思应明确,语言应简练。

essay格式:文献综述的正文写作

回顾历史要有重点,内容要紧扣文章标题,围绕标题介绍背景,用几句话概括即可;在提示所用的方法时,不要求写出方法、结果,不要展开讨论;虽可适当引用过去的文献内容,但不要长篇罗列,不能把前言写成该研究的历史发展;不要把前言写成文献小综述,更不要去重复说明那些教科书上已有或本领域研究人员所共知的常识性内容。

上述内容讲解的是文献综述的写作方法和结论,在写作的过程中,如何正确认识到写作重要性,希望本篇内容能够帮助到同学们。

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essay修改:程序教学

essay修改:程序教学

但是,建构主义并不完全否定教师的作用。老师提出的形式引导帮助学生参与该组织。因此创建基于调查的协作环境。学生在需要时能够获得他们的老师,同时也能够专注于构建。因此,口译工作是按照他们的优点和缺点。在大多数行为主义的学习理论等,程序教学作为事实上的标准教育环境时,可以看出收入成为收购的过程(狙击兵,1991)。另一方面,在建构主义学习的过程变成了施工方法。组的参与者能够认识和构建的知识基于个人经验在集团工作,数据收集和更多。

essay修改:程序教学
因为每个参与者自己的部分的工作,也有可能让他们锻炼一定的自主权与他们进行理论工作。工作作为一个团体我们发现社会的学习过程变得更加考虑我们共享的消息数据聚集的地方,突出和优先级的数据被认为是基于谈判的推理,然后必须提供什么和不应该也是谈判。这也是一种从实践经验中学习,学习者可以通过经验学习,主动和自由选择的意思,他们作为一个群体。学生参与这一组,我们能够与许多选择我们活跃的实验阶段的科尔布的过程(,反观&土地,2012)。

essay修改:程序教学

However, constructivism does not completely negate the role of the teacher either. The teacher is also presented in the form of a guide who helps the student participants in the group. An inquiry based collaborative environment is hence created. Students are able to have access to their teachers and when required and at the same time are also able to focus on constructing. And hence, interpreting the work is as per their strengths and weaknesses. In most learning theories such as that of behaviourism and programmed instruction that is used as a de facto standard when it comes to the educational environment, it is observed that earning becomes a process of acquisition (Yager, 1991). On the other hand, in the constructivist method learning becomes a process of construction. The participants of the group were able to contextualize and construct the knowledge based on their personal experiences of working in the group, the data collection and more.

essay修改:程序教学
Since each of the participants had their own section of work, it was possible for them to also exercise some amount of autonomy as they were carrying on with theory work. Working as a group we found that the learning process became more of a social consideration where we shared the news data we gathered, the prominence and the priority of the data was considered and then based on negotiations the reasoning for what had to be presented and what should not be presented was also negotiated. This was also a form of experiential learning where the learner was able to learn by experience, by mean of active and free choices that they made as a group. As a student participant in this group, we were able to relate mort of the choices we made to active experimentation phase of the Kolb’s process (Jonassen, & Land, 2012).

代写essay:情色的影响

代写essay:情色的影响

色情作品的性取向被认为是对社会的负面影响。色情也导致性犯罪的增加和人们道德价值的降低。这从总体上扰乱了社会基础。根据各种研究表明,色情给人带来短暂的快感,但后来的伤害却是致命的。证据也表明色情导致性侵犯。它影响整个社会,因为涉及色情的男人对他们的妻子不满意。他们评判自己的妻子和外表。它还增加了强奸和性侵犯的发生率。从女性主义的角度来看,色情作品也对女性在社会中的形象产生了负面影响(Ferguson & Hartley, 2009)。

代写essay:情色的影响
色情很容易上瘾。生物学家和社会科学家正在研究色情作品对个人的生物影响。色情被认为是对婚姻、家庭和个人的干扰。研究还表明,经常观看色情作品的青少年会对自己的性倾向产生不确定性。色情也会增加孤独感和抑郁感。它也可以降低个人的自尊。它也被认为是扭曲个人的性观念和性关系的因素。“色情作品严重扭曲了人们对性交本质的态度和看法”(Fagan, 2009, p 9)。

代写essay:情色的影响

The sexually oriented business of pornography is considered to be negatively affecting the society. Pornography also leads to increase in sexual crimes and decreasing the moral values of the people. This on the whole disturbs the base of the society. According to various studies, it is revealed that pornography provides a momentary pleasure, but the later harm is damnable. Evidences also show that pornography results in sexual aggression. It affects community as a whole, because men involved in pornography are not satisfied with their wives. They judge their wives and their physical appearance. It also increases the incidence of rapes and sexual assaults. According to the feminist perspective, pornography has also negatively affected the image of women in the society (Ferguson & Hartley, 2009).

代写essay:情色的影响
Pornography is very addictive. Biologists and social scientists are mapping the biological impact of pornography on the individual. Pornography is considered to be disturbing for marriages, families and individuals. The studies also show that adolescents involved in regular viewing of pornography develop uncertainties about their sexualities. Porn can also increase the feeling of loneliness, and depression. It can also lower the self-esteem of the individuals. It is also considered as the element of distorting the individual’s concept of sexuality and sexual relationships. “Pornography significantly distorts attitudes and perceptions about the nature of sexual intercourse” (Fagan, 2009, p 9).

個人陳述:情境知识

個人陳述:情境知识

Haraway在她的“情境知识:女性主义的科学问题和部分视角的特权”讨论了客观主义和边界这两个问题都不能在一个陈述,语境,社会互动和动态中真正定义给它们一个意义。一个占主导地位的群体的眼睛所认为的目标,不会从另一个人的角度来看。事实上,试图以书面形式给出硬性的边界或目标,甚至在永久的现实世界中都是行不通的,因为作者指出,即使我们是永久的凡人,世界上也没有最终的控制。

個人陳述:情境知识

现在对我所分析的图片进行理解,我会说一个人看到的是什么。例如,它是考虑纯粹客观的观点。没有意义和任何其他感情,这是人们握手的画面。当一个人知道了背景,如果看到的人没有把任何情感添加到他们的理解中,那么他们就不能充分地欣赏这幅画。只有当一个人把自己在这种类似的情况,失去非常重要的镜头客观世界的教他们,看看图片与情感,人的抗议和保护示威者和non-protestor,他们能理解这幅画的意义。我相信通过借用Haraway的图片来看看这幅画是很有趣的,因为它实际上显示了这幅画的重要性。

個人陳述:情境知识

Haraway in her ‘Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial perspective’ discuss objectivism and boundaries which are both tricky cannot really be defined in a statement, context, social interactions and dynamics give them a meaning. What is considered objective from the eyes of a dominant group would not be from another’s perspective. In fact, trying to give hard boundaries or objectives in writing might not even work in the permanent real world as author states that there is no final control in the world even when we are permanently mortal.

個人陳述:情境知识
Now taking that understanding to the picture I have been analyzing, I would say what one sees is what one gets. For instance, it is to consider the purely objective view point. Devoid of meaning and any other sentiment, this is the picture of people shaking hands. When one knows the background, if the person viewing the picture does not add any emotions into their understanding, then they would not be able to appreciate the picture fully. Only when a person puts themselves in such a similar situation, lose their very critical lens of objectivity as the world has taught them, and look at the picture with emotion, the protest and the people who are protecting both protestor and non-protestor, can they understand the significance of the picture. I believe that it is interesting to look at the picture through lends of Haraway as it actually shows how significance of the picture can really be read.

毕业论文代写:合并与收购

毕业论文代写:合并与收购

合并和收购对一个组织的成长和财务绩效产生重大影响。已经为并购分析和对财务业绩产生影响的四家信息技术公司分别是Oracle、Microsoft、谷歌和Apple。根据Vachon(2007)的说法,许多组织利用并购是为了获得竞争优势而开发和增加其市场份额。

毕业论文代写:合并与收购

两家公司还合并,以利用规模经济和协同效应。他们也会主导他们的行业,并超越他们的竞争对手。并购的价值和重要性已经吸引了大量的组织,它们结合了具有不同个性和文化价值的两个组织来实现战略目标。该技术有助于降低企业风险或提高盈利能力。根据Vishwanath和Krishnamurti(2008)的观点,为了实现利润最大化,企业通过并购的过程不断分析不同的机会。

毕业论文代写:合并与收购

The merger and acquisition impose a significant impact on the growth and financial performance of an organization. The four information technologies companies that have been taken for merger and acquisition analysis and its effect on the financial performance are Oracle, Microsoft, Google and Apple. According to Vachon (2007), many organizations use merger and acquisition is to develop and increase its market share in order to achieve competitive advantage.

毕业论文代写:合并与收购
The companies also merge to take advantage of economies of scale and synergies. They also engage to dominate their sector and leapfrog their competitors. The value and importance of merger and acquisition have attracted a large number of organizations which combine two organizations having a different personality and cultural values to achieve the strategic objectives. The technique helps to decrease the business risk or increase the profitability. According to Vishwanath and Krishnamurti (2008), with the aim of profit maximization, organizations keep analyzing different opportunities through the process of the merger and acquisition.

案例研究论文:文学解析

案例研究论文:文学解析

胡安·德·拉·罗萨。《独立宣言》最初发表于1885年。这是娜塔丽·阿吉雷写的。本文讨论了地方政治和文学的建构。这部小说取材于发生在玻利维亚科查巴姆巴的事件。这篇小说讨论了玻利维亚历史的基本事实。1809年至1811年间,玻利维亚经历了动荡的时期和不确定性。作者还信奉平等主义和自由的价值观。

案例研究论文:文学解析
这就是为什么作者是一个叛逆者,并根据这些事件写文章。要理解小说的建构,就必须了解拉丁美洲文学的建构。这些事件的叙述方式,使胡安回忆起他晚年的往事。他所面临的个人问题是由于他母亲的去世,以及西班牙在独立战争中遭遇的镇压、抵抗和失败等外部事件所造成的。这本小说是折衷的拉丁美洲文学的重要作品。

案例研究论文:文学解析

Juan de la Rosa. Memorias del último soldado de la Independencia was originally published in 1885. It was written by Nataniel Aguirre. The politics of the place and the construction of literature have been discussed in the following.The novel draws on the events that had occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The essential facts of Bolivian History are discussed in this novel. Between 1809 and 1811, Bolivia faced tumultuous time and uncertainty. The author also espoused the values of egalitarianism and liberty.

案例研究论文:文学解析
This was the reason for the author to be a rebel and write based on these events. To understand the construction of the novel, it is imperative to understand the construction of Latin American Literature. The events are told in a manner where Juan reminiscence about the events in his old age. It is a combination of the personal issues that he faced due to the death of his mother and external events such as the Spanish repression, resistance and defeat encountered in the war of independence. The novel was an important piece in the eclectic Latin American literature.

 

英国硕士毕业论文挂了怎么办:死亡分析

英国硕士毕业论文挂了怎么办:死亡分析

我曾调查过,自从这座桥被打开以来,有超过1200人在这个位置上过着自己的生活。我发现自杀率日益上升,官员们正在努力应对这种情况。如果一个人从桥上跳下来,那么它就会飞到大约265英尺的地面。一个人以每小时76英里的速度潜入水中不到4秒。自从这座桥开放以来,它已经成为那些想要自杀的人最喜欢的跳地之一。

英国硕士毕业论文挂了怎么办:死亡分析
在2003年,超过1200次的自杀企图成功了,这个数字引起了世界上许多人的注意(Fussell & Louie, 2008)。从马林县验尸官那里得到的报告显示,从1996年到2007年,超过210人从桥的顶部跳下自杀。人们说从桥上掉下来是暴力和残忍的。从桥上掉下来的人会立即死亡,但很少有人会在桥下的水中降落,他们不会立刻死亡,但他们会受伤,导致死亡。

英国硕士毕业论文挂了怎么办:死亡分析

I had surveyed that more than 1,200 people had traveled to take their own lives on this location since the bridge was opened. I had found that the rates of suicides are increasing day by day and the officials are struggling to deal with the situation. If an individual jump from the bridge, then it goes approximately 265 feet down to the ground. It takes less than four seconds for an individual to go into the water below at a speed of 76mph. Since the bridge has opened, it has become one of the most popular jumping sites for the people who want to commit suicide.

英国硕士毕业论文挂了怎么办:死亡分析
In the year 2003, more than 1,200 suicide attempts were successful, and the figure captured the attention of many people in the world(Fussell & Louie, 2008). It was collected in the form of reports from Marin county coroner which shows that more than 210 people committed suicide from 1996 to 2007 by jumping from the top of the bridge. People say that the fall from the bridge is violent and brutal. The fall from the bridge leads to immediate death, but few of them land in the water below the bridge in such a way that they do not die instantly, but they get injured which makes to die.

 

英國論文:韩国航空

英國論文:韩国航空

本文讨论了不同地域范围内的政治不稳定问题。在南海和某些海域的不稳定中,游客对中国的态度有一种普遍的担忧。韩国也有冲突。这些已经开始影响航空旅行,因为一些航空公司已经暂停了两国间的服务(Yon hapnews co . kr., 2017)。总部位于首尔的“金风航空”是一家韩国航空公司的子公司。该公司表示,他们将对从济州岛到上海西安地区的航班进行审查,并限制从韩国到中国的机票预订,以避免航班中断。春秋航空公司(Spring Airlines Co.)表示,从宁波到济州岛的航班将被取消。

英國論文:韩国航空
韩国廉价航空公司已经停止了在该地区运营的许多航班。中国大陆对中国大陆实行了一系列限制措施。皇家加勒比游轮有限公司还说,它将取消许多在韩国的港口停靠。被美国称为“萨德”的导弹计划被发现在这些地区造成了深远的影响。春秋航空的发言人向世界解释说,这两个国家之间的旅游业和航空公司受到了明显的影响。夏季秋季飞行季节的数据相对较低。这篇文章里有一种普遍的消极情绪。

英國論文:韩国航空

In the article, the political instability in the different geographic spectrum is discussed. In the South Sea and instability in certain areas in the ocean, there is a general apprehensiveness in the attitude of the tourists to visit China. There is conflict with South Korea. These have started to impact the air travel as some carriers have suspended the services between the nations (Yon hapnews co kr., 2017). Seoul-based air service Jin Air is a unit to the Korean Air Lines Company. It has said that they will be reviewing flights from Jeju to Shanghai Xian areas and have restricted bookings from South Korea to China to avoid disruptions. Spring Airlines Co. states that the flights will be cancelled from Ningbo to Jeju.

英國論文:韩国航空
The Korean Budget airlines have stopped many of the flights form operating in this region. There are a number of curbs imposed for mainland China (Yon hapnews co kr., 2017). Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd has also said that it will cancel many of the port calls in the South Korean nation. The missile program initiated by the US known as Thaad is found to have caused profound impact in these regions. Spring Air’s spokesman explains to the world that the tourism and airlines between these two nations have been markedly impacted. Summer-autumn flight season has shown relatively lower numbers (Yon hapnews co kr., 2017). There is a general negativity in the article.

英国代写:项目评估

英国代写:项目评估

在对项目进行详细评估之前,俱乐部应该有能力在项目中进行支付。应在初始阶段对其进行识别,以便在额外的经营资产下进行具体的投资。如果这是俱乐部依赖金融机构来感知资金的关键意图,那么应该在最初阶段就可能对条款进行评估,以进行偿还(Anderson, 2010)。在这个特殊的阶段,黛西应该专注于评估计划项目与主要资本项目的财务效果。评估应提供利润和损失的预测,以描述这个项目对Ascor俱乐部的成本和收入的影响。此外,还应该对资产负债表进行预测,以显示该项目对Ascor俱乐部财务状况的影响。最后,应该对现金流进行分析,以显示其对现金流的影响。黛西应该专注于选择独立的专家来处理整个项目的交付管理。

英国代写:项目评估
在整个项目中,必须有关于雇佣需要的顾问来定义、设计、文档和获得批准的安排。雏菊应该专注于用特定的过程来进行项目的投标。双方不应在没有进行公司意图的情况下提交或寻求投标。双方不应该有任何实际的接触,不适当地为双方分配利益。此外,对于任何具体的项目,在采购时提供的条件必须是相同的。各俱乐部应确保招标文件中明确规定要求,并说明适当评估的标准。标书必须在甄选标准和采购条件的基础上由雏菊评估,同时确保在保存采购过程中信息是保密的。只有一个供应商可以为实现特别需要的结果进行协商。这将进一步要求正式接受其他成员。

英国代写:项目评估

Prior to appraising the project in detail, the club should have the capacity to make payment in the project. Its recognition should be done in the initial point to make the specific investment under extra operating assets. If it is the key intention of the club for relying upon finance institutions to perceive funding, the stage should be initially approached for the likely assessment of terms to make the repayment (Anderson, 2010). In this particular stage, Daisy should focus on assessing the financial effect of planned project with major capital works. The assessment should provide projections of profit and loss to depict the effect of this project on the costs and revenues of Ascor Club. In addition, there should be projections of balance sheet to show the effect of this project on the financial position of Ascor Club. Finally, there should be analysis of cash flow to show its effect on the overall flow of cash. Daisy should focus on the selection of independent expert for acting upon the management of delivery in the overall project.

英国代写:项目评估

There has to be arrangements for employing needed consultant for the definition, design, documentation and gain approvals throughout the project. Daisy should focus on using specific processes for the conduct of this project by the sources of tender. The parties should not be submitting or seeking tenders in the absence of proceeding the firm intention. The parties should not be having any practical engagement that distributes advantage for both the parties improperly. In addition, for any specific project, the conditions provided in context with procurement have to be same. The clubs should ensure a clear specification of requirements in the documents of tender and indicating criteria to evaluate appropriately. The tender must be evaluated by Daisy on the basis of selection criteria and procurement conditions documented across the tender while ensuring that the information is confidential during the preservation of procurement. A negotiation can be initiated by Daisy with only one supplier for the achievement of outcomes specifically desired. This will further require formal acceptance of other members as well.

 

代写论文:维多利亚时代的电报通讯

代写论文:维多利亚时代的电报通讯

对维多利亚时代的人来说,电报通讯及其好处是有趣的。从19世纪40年代初开始,各种研究人员源源不断地向人们解释电报给人们带来的好处。它也为世界各地的人们带来了大量的就业机会,就像互联网为现代社会所做的一样。维多利亚时代的研究人员指出,像电报这样的技术对计时的概念产生了巨大的影响。传统上,人们对时间、地点和距离的关系有猜测。这种投机行为被电报的使用打破了。丽迪雅的传统障碍,尤其是在遥远的地方,由于使用电报而被移除的技能。同样,互联网也把世界的不同地方聚集在一起,缩短了时间和空间,也给人们的交流方式带来了新的亲密感。

代写论文:维多利亚时代的电报通讯
许多维多利亚时代的人称赞电报是实现的手段,并超越了想象的水平,使一切皆有可能。在现代世界中,没有必要在向世界各地迅速发送任何信息之前再考虑一下。新闻从世界的任何地方,以最快的方式流动。《每日电讯报》(Telegraph)所面临的障碍表明,创建和实施互联网的想法可能已经出现。互联网最初停工。然而,当互联网遍布世界各地时,它似乎并没有什么大问题。同样,与电报相似,互联网给新闻广播带来了革命。《每日电讯报》进行了大规模的扩张,导致了大量的海外新闻报道,因此全球范围内的内容很容易获得。互联网的使用也是如此。

代写论文:维多利亚时代的电报通讯

The telegraphic communication and its benefits were interesting for the Victorians. From the beginning of the decade of 1840s, there was a constant flow of huge literature from various researchers who explained the benefits of telegram to the people. It also brought a lot of employment for people in different parts of the world, just like Internet has done for the modern Era.It was stated by the Victorian researchers that technology like Telegraph had huge effect on the idea of timings. There was traditionally speculation regarding the relation among the time, place as well as the distance. This speculation was broken by the use of Telegraph. There had been Lydia’s traditional barriers especially the availability of skills at distant places, which are removed by the use of telegraph. Similarly, Internet has also brought together the different parts of the world, by shrinking the time and space and also bringing fresh intimacy among the people’s way of communicating.

代写论文:维多利亚时代的电报通讯
Lots of Victorians lauded the Telegraph as the means of realisation and going ahead of the imagination levels to make anything possible. In the modern world, there is no need to give a second thought before sending any message quickly to different parts of the globe. The news flows from any part of the world, in the quickest way possible. The hindrances faced by Telegraph show how the thought of creating and implementing Internet might have appeared. Internet had initial stoppages. However, when Internet was spread all over the world, it did not appear to have very big issues. Also, similar to telegraph, the Internet brought revolution to News broadcasting. The Telegraph had a huge expansion which led to huge coverage of the overseas news and therefore the worldwide content was easily accessible. Similar is the case with the use of Internet.