英国代写论文:人力资源开发

英国代写论文:人力资源开发

Dunning&Narula(1996)坚持用人力资源开发来代替人均GDP。虽然研究人员发现IDP假说在很大程度上是遵循的,但是在过渡或发展中经济体的有效性方面却有很多讨论(Liu,et al。,2005)。由于人均国内生产总值被认为是一个不完整的发展指标,因此有必要在模型中纳入其他因素。人均GDP没有体现的一个重要方面就是人的发展。本文开发的模型试图通过工人的文化水平来捕捉这个变量,因为这样可以捕捉内部人力资源更有效地工作的能力,从而捕捉到人力资源可以迎合的O型优势Dura’n&Ubeda,2001)。关于对外直接投资是否是替代出口还是国际业务的新方法,已经有充分的讨论。 Yeung(1998)认为,OFDI可以作为商业网络刺激的平台,有利于后续的出口,Bellack(2001)发现它可以作为出口的替代品。中国的好奇之处在于,在出口制成品的同时,对外直接投资在很大程度上依赖于服务的出口(Liu,et al。,2005)。周,等。 (2002)指出,由于内部外商直接投资导致的营销技巧和管理激励,中国本土企业的生产率水平提高,中国的内部直接投资溢出效应水平不断提高。
因此,从以上讨论的基础可以得出,一国的ODI与发展阶段(反映在人均GDP中),人力资源开发(反映在劳动力识字率中),出口国家和内向的外国直接投资。顺便提一下,世界银行数据库中没有可用的扫盲数据。数据缺少很长时间。替代教育和人力资源开发的可能替代品或代理变量也遭受同样的问题。因此,人力资源上的变量将会下降,其影响被假定为在误差项中进行调整。因此,从文献综述的直觉中,可以形成以下假设:
假设1(a):ODI与该国人均GDP呈正相关关系
假设1(b):ODI与该国的出口有正相关关系(因为它不被视为出口的替代品)
假设1(c):ODI随着FDI流入量的增加而增加

英国代写论文:人力资源开发

Dunning & Narula (1996) insist that human resource development should be used instead of per capita GDP. While researchers have found that the IDP hypothesis is largely followed, there has been much discussion on its validity for a transition or a developing economy (Liu, et al., 2005). Since GDP per capita is considered an incomplete measure of development, there is a need to incorporate other factors into the model. An important aspect of development not captured in GDP per capita is the human development. The model developed in this paper tries to capture this variable through the literacy level of the workers as this is expected to capture the ability of the internal human resource to work more effectively, thereby capturing the O-advantage that the human resources may cater to (Dura´n & Ubeda, 2001). There has been ample amount of discussion on whether OFDI is a substitute to export or a new method of international business. While Yeung (1998)suggests that OFDI can act as a platform of business network stimulation and favouring subsequent export, Bellack (2001) finds that it can act as an alternative to export. The curious case of China is that while it exports manufactured goods, its OFDI is cantered largely on the export of services (Liu, et al., 2005). Zhou, et al. (2002) notes that China experiences an increasing level of spillovers from inwards FDI in terms of enhanced productivity levels in indigenous firms as a result of marketing skills and management incentives, all resulting from inward FDI.
Thus from the basis of above discussion, it can be concluded that the ODI from a country experiences causal relationship with the development stage (reflected in per capita GDP), human resource development (reflected in literacy rate of the labour force), export of the country, and inwards FDI. Incidentally, data for literacy is not available in the World Bank dataset in a usable amount. The data is missing for large periods. Possible alternatives or proxy variables to replace education and human resource development also suffer from the same problem. Hence, the variable on human resource is dropped and its effect is assumed to be adjusted in the error term. So, drawing intuition from the literature review, the following hypotheses can be formed:
Hypothesis 1(a): ODI has a positive relationship with the per capita GDP of the country
Hypothesis 1(b): ODI has a positive relationship with the exports of the country (given that it is not treated as a substitute for export)
Hypothesis 1(c): ODI increases with an increasing inflow of inward FDI

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