英国代写-双边市场和第三方平台的政策和战略问题。双边网络平台和与此类平台相关的经济学通常是相当成功的(艾森曼等人,2006)。经济学家指出,双边网络平台产品产生了良好的收入,因为它为两类不同的用户创造了价值。因此,当其中一方被视为进行交易时,平台成本增加,平台收益规模增加(Eisenmann et al., 2006)。然而,尽管有这些网络效应,可以确定的是,当涉及到维持一个双边网络平台时,企业可能仍然会挣扎。关于为什么会发生这种故障的研究经常强调这样的问题,即错误地理解平台对于不同用户组意味着什么,或者,一组用户需求的评分高于其他用户。双边网络平台的工作在一些简单的策略。然而,这些战略创新及其与规模经济的联系仍然是基于语境的研究。

Managers might rely on some assumptions from previous implementations, but they might not customize the platform or strategy for a unique set of distinct user segment which they intend to tap into. Different economics of industries are present online, and each of these industries has unique set of users with unique set of needs. The two-sided network platform needs not always understand this uniqueness despite its ability to create value at two ends. This then makes the platform inappropriate or over time, users might seek another competitive platform. Price discrimination as argued by Rysman (2009) is an important issue in two sided markets.
“In a situation of demand heterogeneity, standard price discrimination—for instance, by manipulating the prices for participation and usage—allows a platform to capture more of the surplus on the side with discrimination. Thus, discrimination increases the value extracted on one side, which leads to lower prices on the other side which has now become more valuable” (Rysman, 2009, p. 131).

Coming to the issues of third party payment platforms in the context of the two-sided networks, the third-party payment platforms were created because of the payment bottleneck in two sided networks. It was identified that payment related issues were causing stunting effect in the development of ecommerce. Ecommerce is built of three main components. Information flow, capital flow and logistics are the three main components. Information flow components are developing based on technology development and concerns raised in such area are handled accordingly. In a similar way, logistics related challenges are also considered and handled accordingly. However, cash flow issues have remained one of the most significant bottlenecks in the case of ecommerce. The reason for the inception and development of third-party payment sites was because of this payment bottleneck. It was necessary for payment to be considered as a unique platform, which could handle diversified set of users, or distinct users like in the case of the two-sided network platform. Versatility in use of cash flow means resulted in development of the third-party payment platform. Paypal and another provider called 99bill are seen to be based on low rate charges to business and free for non-business personal users. Charging of additional services are seen to be provided for some specific users, and usually this form of a payment platform provides services for a variety of terminal formats such as the Internet, cell phones, telephone, POS terminals, etc. Tenpay is an online payment platform tool and is seen to be more useful for shopping retail services. Some of the convenience charging available on this is the credit card repayment services. Lakala is yet another service which is quite different when one considers the profit model end of it. It makes little profit in providing services to both distinct set of consumers. However, in doing so, it is seen to connect internet users and more local convenience stores and hence invites a much more distinct set of consumers.

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