Apart from the systematic underreporting or over reporting producing reports that are biased, another kind of response error can be produced with the instability in the response behaviour. In explaining it with the help of an example, a survey question in SOC regarding the betterment or worsening of the business condition at the present time comparing with a year ago. In such a scenario, the respondent uses the stimuli in the measurement environment considering the way respondents would be approaching such a question with respect to the words of the question in relation to the prior questions. It is a process that can be described as haphazard and unpredictable in the gathering of such kind of stimuli over the independent trials. The involvement of variability with respect to the responses over the measurements that can be characterized as conceptual trials can be described as “variability in response deviations.” The response bias is the construct of the question as derived from the difference between the response variance and response bias.
Processing Error: The Observational Gap between the Variable Used in Estimation and that Provided by the Respondent
The consideration of the errors that are introducible following the data collection and the prior estimation is discussed in this paper. For instance, a distribution outline may have done the correct reporting of a value. Taking an example of National Crime Victimization Survey, where a respondent may have reported that he/she being the subject of assault many times each day. This may have caused the filing up of the value with regards to the missing data. Nonetheless, when the additional information of the respondent provided in the bar that he is a security guard, report becomes more reasonable. The question remains on the construct based in which the question is measured whether to alter or not in the editing step.