英国论文重复率要求:莫卧儿帝国历史

英国论文重复率要求:莫卧儿帝国历史

在英国殖民国家中,印度是18世纪经历去工业化的主要经济体之一,当时莫卧儿帝国解体为几个小的继承国。许多人将印度的去工业化归因于英国在纺织业的生产力增长——这是印度主要的制造业关注(乔杜里,1978)。在18世纪,英国经历了戏剧性的竞争,先是在平房纺织业,然后在降低国际纺织品价格的工厂产品,因此英国占领了印度的纺织品出口市场。此外,由于世界运输革命,印度和英国之间的贸易壁垒也降低了,因此英国的纺织品可以免税进入印度市场。直到1750年,中国和印度的制造业总产值约占世界制造业总产值的57%。然而,直到1880年,由于去工业化,印度的份额下降到不到3%。尽管这对印度经济似乎是负面的,然而,它导致印度把重点放在其核心竞争力-农业(威廉姆森,2004)。


英国论文重复率要求:莫卧儿帝国历史
在莫卧儿帝国灭亡之前,粮食一直是工人们的主要消费商品,粮食工资仅能勉强维持生计。然而,纺织制造业的衰退使农业和大宗商品行业受到关注。印度促进了糖、丝绸、硝石、靛蓝和鸦片等原材料的出口,以及主要来自旁遮普新灌溉地区的原棉、黄麻和谷物的出口。其他在当时受到推动的原材料出口包括茶叶、兽皮、皮和油饼。到19世纪上半叶,这些商品约占印度总出口的57% (David Clingingsmith, 2008)。相反,印度再次失去了核心竞争力,由于不可贸易谷物价格上涨,名义工资出现了惊人的上涨。但名义工资的压力很快开始缓解。因此,可以说,印度农业的低效率不是由于去工业化,而是由于他们的食品价格和劳动力成本。

英国论文重复率要求:莫卧儿帝国历史

Among UK colonized countries, India is one of the prominent economies that underwent deindustrialization in the 18th century – the period when Mughal Empire dissolved into a group of small successor states. Many attribute India’s deindustrialization to Britain’s productivity gains in textile sector – a major manufacturing concern of India (Chaudhry, 1978). During 18th century, Britain experienced dramatic competitiveness, first in the cottage textile industry and then in the factory goods which lowered the international textile prices and hence Britain captured India’s textile export market. Besides, trade barriers between India and Britain also dropped as a result of world transport revolution and hence Britain’s textile produce could enter Indian market without any duty.Until 1750, China and India collectively accounted for around 57 percent of the world’s manufacturing output. However, until 1880, as a result of deindustrialization, India’s share slumped to less than 3 percent. While this may seem negative for Indian economy, nevertheless, it led India to focus on its core competitiveness – agriculture (Williamson, 2004).


英国论文重复率要求:莫卧儿帝国历史
Until the fall of Mughal Empire, grain was the prominent consumption good for the workers and the grain wage was just close to subsistence. However, the downfall in the textile manufacturing sector brought agriculture and commodity sector in the limelight. India promoted exports of raw materials such as sugar, silk, saltpeter, indigo and opium and raw cotton, jute and grains mainly from the newly irrigated areas of Punjab. Other raw materials exports that gained traction at that time were tea, hides, skin and oil cake. By first half of 19th century, these commodities constituted around 57 percent of India’s total exports (David Clingingsmith, 2008). Conversely, India again lost its core competency as nominal wages saw a spectacular rise due to hike in the prices of non-tradable grains. But the pressure on nominal wages soon began to ease. Hence, it can be argued that agricultural inefficiency in India is not due to deindustrialization but due to their food prices and labor cost.

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