The Radar stands for the Radio Detection and Ranging. The principle of radar is that the radar emits the radio signals. These signals scatter in all the directions. The time-of-flight for the signal, the waves come back to the radar and the distance is measured. The Radar sensors work like the Laser sensors. The strong radio waves are emitted from the radar and the signals are reflected back to the radar. Therefore, the distance or the range of the obstacle is detected through the time-of-flight information. One significant advantage of the radar sensor is that the velocity of the object is calculated easily, and directly, with the help of the frequency shift that are created between the emitted signal and the Doppler echo (Meinel, 2014). These sensors were mainly used in the defence services and the aviation industry to locate the aircrafts and map their movement. It helped to derive the information about the velocity and range of the object. Therefore, in the driverless cars, the radar sensors can help in detecting the velocity and the range of the object and the obstacles (Luettel, Himmelsbach & Wuensche, 2012).
This is the main advantage of these sensors that make them appropriate for the driver less cars. Two types of radar that is acknowledged in the automation industry are the Long range radar (LRR) and the Short range radar (SRR). The long range radar operates at 77-81 GHz spectrum, which is for providing the information about the objects at long range. The short radar range operates at 21.65-26.65 GHz, which is a very short range. If the range is calculated in terms of meters than it can be said that long range radar provides the data of 120 to 150 meters and for the short range radar the range is 20 to 60 meters. However, there is an advantage of these sensors like the Laser sensors, and that is they are vulnerable in extreme weather conditions. The radar does not work in the thick fog and sometimes fails to differentiate between clutter and target. The driverless cars can rely on the radar sensors for the applications of the collision mitigation and adaptive control.
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