英国论文代写:跨文化交流

英国论文代写:跨文化交流

美国跨文化研究人员和人类学家爱德华·t·霍尔(Edward T. Hall)首先创造了“代理人经济学”的概念,并创造了“多重慢性”一词。他在1959年出版的《影响力》一书中使用了跨文化交流这个词。空间关系是对空间的研究和理解,它在跨文化关系中的应用,它是如何使人们在不受限制的情况下感到舒适,以及人们如何安排自己或物体的空间。理解代理关系需要在跨文化交流中识别一种不同的空间。来自不同社区、文化、民族或不同语言群体的人们通常用来交流的距离有四种(Cai, 2010)。然而,根据Hall的说法,不同的地方不同,不同的文化可以有不同的标准。公共空间指的是人们或个人与某人坐或站得有多近。社会空间指的是工作场所,社会上的空间,比如聚会,社会交往,人与人之间的距离。接下来,是更近的个人空间。

英国论文代写:跨文化交流

最后,它带来了一个亲密的空间,这个空间是为那些非常亲密的人而设的,每个人都互相接触,比如恋爱关系。在跨文化交际中,爱德华认为这些空间和物质领域、地理领域的因素,如主要领域、次要领域、公共领域等,起着重要的作用。例如,来自某一特定社区、文化、说语言群体或宗教的个人会觉得与来自其社区或团体的人或与文化或语言与有关人士相似的人交流很自在。当个人或个人具备了在其他语言中以特定语言表达知识的质量或能力时,或者他们也知道除了母语以外的其他语言,他们就能成功地跨文化交际(Gambetti & Quigley, 2013)。否则来自不同社区、不同文化、特别是不同语言群体的人或个人将无法进行跨文化交流。语言是跨文化交流的主要障碍。非语言的跨文化交流也发现语言是他们的主要障碍。来自不同语言群体的人们如果不了解对方的语言,就无法通过信件、电子邮件和社交媒体进行交流,因为他们需要了解相关人士的语言。

英国论文代写:跨文化交流

The American cross-cultural researcher and an anthropologist Edward T. Hall first created the concept of proxemics and coined the term polychronic. In his book influential published in the year 1959 Hall used the term intercultural communication. Proxemics is the study and understanding of space, its use in cross-cultural relation, how it make individuals comfortable irrespective of less or more, as well as how people arrange themselves or objects about space. Understanding proxemics requires identifying a different kind of spaces in intercultural communication. There are four kinds of distance that people from different communities, culture, ethnic group or different language speaking groups usually use to communicate (Cai, 2010). However, according to Hall, it can vary by place, and various types of cultures can have different standards. Public space characterizes how close people or individuals sit or stand to someone. Social space means the workplace, spaces in societies such as parties, social engagements where people or individuals are a little closer to each other. Next, it comes the even closer space that is personal space.

英国论文代写:跨文化交流
At last, it comes the intimate space which is for people who are very close to each other and the individuals touch each other such as romantic relationship. Factors of these spaces and physical territory and geographical territories like primary territory, secondary territory and public territory according to Edward play an important role in intercultural communication. For example, an individual from a particular community, culture, language speaking group or religion will feel comfortable to communicate with people from his or her community or group or with them whose culture or language are similar with that of the concerned person. When individuals or people possess the quality or ability to communicate in other’s language following knowledge in the particular language, or they also know languages other than their mother tongue, they can do successfully intercultural communication (Gambetti & Quigley, 2013). Else the people or individuals from different communities, cultures, especially different language speaking group would not be able to do intercultural communications. Language is the main barrier for intercultural communications. Nonverbal Intercultural Communications also find language as their main barrier. People from different language speaking groups often are unable to communicate using letters, emails and via social media, if they do not know each other’s languages as understanding and answering people require knowledge about the language of the concerned people.

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