英国硕士论文:非股权模式投资

英国硕士论文 :非股权模式投资

进入的非股权模式使投资组织以最小的风险和投资进入国际市场(New Economy, 2014)。研究发现,企业利用这种模式进入市场的速度要快于股权模式。这是由于许可和出口过程比起草合资企业协议或确定直接投资机会要快(Laufs和Schwens, 2014)。高利率(ROI)是通过投资许可选项提供的,可以降低监管和贸易壁垒(Hill, 2014)。从案例中可以发现,苹果生产的产品出口到赞比亚比竞争对手更有利(Johanson and Mattson, 2015)。这一过程加快了,随着关税基础水平的降低,政府引入了较低的关税制度。报告还取消了10%的进口许可证费用。此外,苹果认为这是一个获得巨大市场份额的增长机会(Hollender et al., 2016)。
有迹象表明,出口期权的风险小于苹果开设零售店,因为这将使过剩产品得到有效清算。股权进入方式包括合资和全资子公司。这种进入模式的主要缺点之一是公司投资需要更高的投资水平(Chang and Ming-Sung, 2009)。这种投资不仅需要货币性质的资源,而且还需要时间来建立与合作伙伴的合资企业或直接投资于目标市场的关系。当目标市场变得不稳定时,直接投资反过来又会使投资机构面临更高的风险。从事合资经营的组织有时应放弃对当地合作伙伴经营的某种控制。以苹果公司为例(Chen and jinging – yun, 2011)。该公司已选择在南非和赞比亚等多个地区建立合资企业。

英国硕士论文 :非股权模式投资

Non-equity modes for the entry enable the investing organization to enter the international market with minimized risk as well as investment (The New Economy, 2014). Organizations are found to use this mode to make entry in markets faster than the mode of equity. It is due to the fact that licensing and exporting processes take place faster than drafting agreements of joint ventures or identifying opportunities of direct investment (Laufs and Schwens, 2014). High rate of interest (ROI) is offered through the licensing option upon the investment and lowers the barriers of regulations and trade (Hill, 2014). It is found from the case that the exportation of the goods produced by Apple to Zambia is beneficial over its rivals (Johanson and Mattson, 2015). The process is faster and the government introduced lower tariff rate regime along with the reduction in basic level of tariff. The 10 per cent fee of import license is also removed by the reports. Moreover, Apple views this as opportunity of growth along with capturing large market share (Hollender et al., 2016).
It has surfaced that exporting option has less risk than establishing a store for retail by Apple as it will enable effective clearing of goods produced in excess.Equity modes of entry are inclusive of joint venturing and wholly owned subsidiaries. One of the key disadvantages of this entry mode is the higher investment level needed from the company investing (Chang and Ming-Sung, 2009). The investment needs not only resources of monetary nature but they also require time in establishment of relationships with either joint venturing with partners or directly investing in the market at target. Directly investing in turn results in exposing the investing organizations to higher risks when the market at target becomes unstable. Organizations engaged within joint venturing should give up at times, certain type of control on the local partners operations. For example, the case of Apple Inccan be depicted (Chen and Jing-Yun, 2011). The company has chosen joint venturing in several regions such as South African regions and Zambia.

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