英国哲学论文代写:北极环境治理

英国哲学论文代写:北极环境治理

北极环境治理是由以软法形式存在的法律和制度框架管理的。除此之外,还有其他正式和非正式的结构来管理它。软法不具有法律约束力,更多的是国际机构之间的监管协议(Nowlan, 2001)。北极海洋生态系统由一系列复杂的国际条约、公约和项目、双边协议、国家和地方法律以及非政府和政府倡议所管理。参与其中的一些政府和非政府机构包括海洋哺乳动物委员会、北欧理事会等。巴伦支欧洲-北极理事会、阿拉斯加纳努克委员会和俄罗斯北方人民联盟(RAIPON)是各自领土的代表。北极由亚洲、欧洲、北美三大洲和八个国家组成。海洋生态系统治理是北极的一个关键问题(Pagnan, 2000, p.470)。


英国哲学论文代写:北极环境治理
北极正面临着越来越大的压力,因为那里正在进行各种不同的活动,即航运、钻探、渔业等。全球气候变化问题已成为社会各界共同关注的焦点。这使得人们更加关注北极地区。适应气候变化需要不同的利益相关者关注北极环境治理。利益攸关方包括所有与北极直接接壤的国家,也包括世界上所有其他国家。政策制定者、土著人民和国际利益攸关方的子类别也在这一清单之列。当涉及到治理结构时,在北极地区,一种具有平等代表性的一致性是必要的。在地方、区域和全球各级,利益攸关方必须平等地代表其利益,因为北极问题是地球的一个普遍问题。

英国哲学论文代写:北极环境治理

The Arctic environmental governance is managed by legal and institutional frameworks which are in the form of soft laws. In addition to this, there are also other formal and informal structures governing it. The soft laws are not legally binding but are more of regulatory agreements among international bodies (Nowlan, 2001). The marine Arctic ecosystem is governed by a complex array of international treaties, conventions and programs, bilateral agreements, national and sub-national laws, and nongovernmental and governmental initiatives. Some of the governmental and non-governmental institutions that are involved are the Marine Mammal Commission, the Nordic Council and more. The Barents Euro-Arctic Council, the Alaska Nanuuq Commission, and the Russian Association of the Peoples of the North (RAIPON) are the representatives of their respective territories. The Arctic comprises regions of three continents, namely, Asia, Europe and North America along with eight states. The Marine ecosystem governance is a critical issue for the Arctic (Pagnan, 2000, p.470).


英国哲学论文代写:北极环境治理
There is increasing pressure in the Arctic because of the different activities that are going on there, namely in the form of shipping, drilling, fisheries and more. The global climate change issues have now been taken up by the community at large. This puts more focus on the Arctic. Adaptation to the climate change requires different stakeholders to focus on Arctic environmental governance. The stakeholders include all the countries directly bordering on the Arctic and also all the other countries of the world. Policy makers, indigenous people, and sub categories of international stakeholders come into this list. When it comes to governance structures, a coherency with equal representation is a necessity in the arctic. At local, regional and the global levels, the stakeholders have to be represented equally in their interests as the Arctic problem is a universal problem to the earth.

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