Negotiation is a part of daily life for each individual. It is carried out in many ways and some achieve its desired results and some don’t. It can be divided into three categories, namely, Positional, Integrative and Principled negotiation. Positional negotiation is a process in which one person insists on his stand and creates a manipulative situation which forces the opposite person to give up and lose confidence in his own stand and accept his counterpart’s demands. It can be done in a soft or hard way. In the soft method, one accepts and compromises his own stand to reach an agreement, whereas in the hard method, one insists on accepting his own stand.
Principled negotiation is a collaborative approach by the participants to reach an agreement amicably and peacefully, by exploring various options and taking a qualified decision based on certain standards which creates mutual gain for all.
Principled negotiation has a unique concept based on the following elements (Fisher, Ury, 1991):
- People: Separating people from the problem
- Interests: Focusing on interests instead of positions
- Options: Creating maximum options before taking a decision
- Criteria: Insisting to reach a decision based on an objective standard
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