梅尔顿论文代写:高语境文化

梅尔顿论文代写:高语境文化

高语境文化,如日本,比低语境文化更能区分局内人与局外人。在高情境系统中长大的人比在低情境系统中长大的人期望更多的是其他人,比如美国。(霍尔,1976,第13页)。在低上下文系统中情况并非如此,在低上下文系统中,个人可能会让人知道是什么在困扰他们。此外,在工作场所的高情境系统中,当局将对其下属完全负责。另一方面,在低上下文系统的情况下,系统会被认为是错误的,或者会被认为是一个替罪羊。施瓦茨提出了七个文化类别。第一类是保护。这是一种文化范畴,与社会中更为传统的方面相一致,在这个社会中,安全、一致性和传统受到高度重视,任何可能挑战传统的行为通常都被避免(Schwartz, 1994)。


梅尔顿论文代写:高语境文化
例如,一些社会自由主义国家或机构可能更喜欢冒险或冒险,甚至可能作出选择,如果这违背了它们更传统或更规范的信念。另一方面,一些国家,如中国和印度,可能会更多地遵循他们历史悠久的信仰。确定的第二个类别是层次结构。任何国家的等级制度都与该国社会和政治权力的分配相一致。如Hofstede(1984)所述,一个高度等级森严、高度保守的国家将是一个集体主义国家。所以中国可以成为一个等级制度的例子。第三类是智力自主,即来自某一文化的个人在追求自己的生活和目标时能够自主和创造性。这类似于Hofstede的个人主义范畴,但在呈现对目标的独立追求而不是野心勃勃时,也可能类似于Hofstede的女性主义范畴。

梅尔顿论文代写:高语境文化

“High-context cultures, such as Japan, make greater distinctions between insiders and outsiders than low-context ones do. People raised in high-context systems expect more of others than do the participants in low-context systems, such as America. When talking about something that they have on their minds, high-context individual will expect his interlocutor to know what is bothering him so that he doesn’t have to be specific” (Hall, 1976, p.13). This is not the case in a low context system, where the individual would probably let the person know about what is bothering them. Also a high context system in the case of the workplace will have authorities that hold themselves completely accountable for their subordinates. And on the other hand in the case of the low context system, the system would be presented as being faulty or a scape goat would be identified to take the blame. There are seven cultural categories as Schwartz presents it. The first category is conservation. This is the cultural category that identifies with more traditional aspects of the society where security, conformity and tradition are given a high preference and any action that could challenge time honored traditions are usually avoided (Schwartz, 1994).


梅尔顿论文代写:高语境文化
For instance, some socio-liberal countries or institutions might prefer to take risks or chances and might even make a choice, if it goes against their more traditional or normative beliefs. On the other hand, some countries such as China and India might go with their time honored beliefs more. The second category identified is that of hierarchy. Hierarchy in the case of any country identifies with the distribution of social and political power in the country. A country that is highly hierarchal and is highly conservative would be collectivistic as presented by Hofstede (1984). So China could be an example of a hierarchal order. The third category is that of intellectual autonomy wherein the individual from a culture could be autonomous and creative in the pursuit of their life and goals. This is akin to the individualistic category of Hofstede, but in presenting the independent pursuit of goals instead of being ambitious might also be akin to the femininity category of Hofstede.

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