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论文代写:新西兰的税收分析

论文代写:新西兰的税收分析。新西兰制定了2007年所得税法,其目的是对个人净收入进行界定和征税。该法案规定了与税收有关的义务,并为履行所规定的义务规定了计算税收的规则。在新西兰,税收是由税务局(IRD)代表新西兰政府在全国范围内征收的。所得税是一种根据收入的不同,由法律规定对个人和单位征收的税收。接下来论文代写专家将对新西兰的税收进行以下分析。

税收分为直接税和间接税,例如,直接税占税收收入的60%。根据收入的多少,新西兰的所得税是非常重要的。它是政府收入的主要来源。在新西兰,所得税税率为:14,000美元以下为10.5%,14,000美元至48,000美元为17.5%,约48,000美元至70,000美元为30%,70,000美元以上为33%。

完善的税收制度至关重要。它坚持三个原则,这是公平,效率,简单,它旨在提高收入,重新分配财富和控制经济活动(Theunissen, 2017)。在新西兰,只有议会有权决定征税的地点和方式。2007年所得税法SBB1规定,年度税法规定了计算所得税时应纳税所得额的固定税率。根据《所得税法》和《1994年税收管理法》,根据应税收入比率计算的金额应支付给王室。

2007年所得税法是目前所得税评估的法律。ITA 2007的BD1(1)规定,如果C部分满足金额,则为收入。收入的分类可以通过立法和判例法两种方式简化。CA 1涉及一个一般原则,如果它被立法确定为收入或在普通概念中满足,那么它就是收入。CA1(1)是判例法中根据不同案件情况而产生的基于普通概念的收入认定。

判例法证明,为了审查确定收入的情况,必须确定收入的特征。如果收据项目满足主要或大部分收入特征,那么该项目就被归类为收入。

MacNaghten勋爵在伦敦郡议会诉司法部长[1901]AC 26中指出,所得税是对收入征税,而不是对其他任何东西征税。纳税评估根据来源的性质而不同。新西兰税基确认,一旦发生收入牵引,就应该对收入征税,因为纳税是法律规定的责任。MacNaghten勋爵提出的方法很可能是调度方法。应纳税所得额的标准因来源的不同而不同。按照scheduler的方法,收益和收益是分开的,每个类别对损失和支出的评估、收取和扣除有不同的规则。

在新西兰现行的税收政策中,收入来源的性质是不分的。税收的评估是基于来源金额,称为全球方法。以前,新西兰税法是在净调度器制度下运行的。从1997年起,新西兰开始实行全球所得税。因此,收益和收入与允许的扣除相结合,而不管收入的类型和产生的方式,都是基于应纳税总额的税率。

Taxes are classified as direct and indirect taxes, for instance, direct income tax is classified as 60% of the tax revenue. NZ income tax is significant according to the amount of revenue. It is the main resource of government revenue. In NZ, the rate of Income Tax is 10.5% up to $ 14,000, 17.5% for $ 14,000 to $ 48,000, 30% for about $ 48,000 to $ 70,000 and 33% for above $ 70,000.

A well-developed tax system is essential. It adheres to 3 principles, which are equity, efficiency, simplicity and it is aimed towards raising revenue, reallocating wealth and controlling economic activities (Theunissen, 2017). In New Zealand, only the parliament has the right to decide where and how to charge tax. The Income Tax Act 2007 has SBB1 stating that an annual tax act regulates the fixed rate on the taxable income for calculating the income tax. The amount calculated by the rates of taxable income is payable to the Crown under the Income Tax Act and the Tax Administration Act 1994.

Income Tax Act 2007 is the current act for income tax assessment. BD1 (1) of ITA 2007 states that if the amount is satisfied by part C, then it is income. The classification of income can be simplified by two ways, legislation and case law. CA 1 involves a general principle that the amount is income if it is identified as income by legislation or satisfied in the ordinary concept. CA1 (1) is the identification of income based on ordinary concept that was created in case law based on the circumstances of different cases.

Case law has testified that for examination of the circumstances that identify income, it is required to determine the characteristic of the receipts. If the items of receipts satisfy the primary or most income characteristics, then the item is classified as being an income.

Lord MacNaghten states in London County Council – v – Attorney General [1901] AC 26 that income tax is tax on income, and it is not meant to be a tax on anything else. Tax assessment varies according to the nature of the source. NZ tax base has confirmed that once the income traction occurs, the income should be taxed as paying tax is the responsibility regulated by the law. The approach stated by Lord MacNaghten is likely to be scheduler approach. The standard of taxable income varies based on different nature of source. As per scheduler approach, the gains and receipts are separated, and each category has different rules to assess, collect and deduct the loss and expenditure.

In the current taxation policy of NZ, the nature of the source of income is regardless. The assessment of the tax is based on the source amount, called the global approach. Previously, NZ tax law was operational in net scheduler regime. From 1997, the global income tax has been adopted in NZ. Therefore, gains and receipts are combined with permissible deductions, irrespective of the type of income and the way it was incurred based on the tax rate of overall taxable amount.

以上内容就是论文代写专家对新西兰的税收分析。若要问论文代写哪家更专业可靠?论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量与合理的论文代写价格。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、assignment代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国论文代写:企业家的角色讨论

英国论文代写:企业家的角色讨论。在一个组织中,领导者影响人们实现目标,并与组织的人力资源密切相关。领导力的本质在于它是一种人的活动。比较管理与更好的问题解决和平滑维护相关联,以呈现每天的活动。领导力和管理似乎是两个完整的基石。然而,情况并非如此。正如理论和研究综述显示,领导是管理行为的一部分,领导者是管理者。在这种背景下,当考虑企业家在其创业活动中的角色时,可以就企业家必须是管理者还是领导者进行辩论。接下来英国论文代写将对企业家领导者的角色进行分析讨论。

企业家作为领导者更有意义,因为企业家是寻找机会推动业务增长的人。管理者的主要动机是控制和稳定,企业家的主要动机是成就和成长(Fairlie & Holleran, 2012)。直觉发展、创造力、创新和冒险能力与企业家相关(Wincent & Westerberg, 2005)。Kotterman(2006)认为,正式责任和日常复杂性处理的管理特征不符合企业家的要求。领导力具有愿景,并激励人们为了追求愿景而改变(Kotterman, 2006)。变革是建立在领导力的基础上,而在管理中,常规和协议是建立在领导力的基础上的。研究人员提到,领导者是鼓舞人心的、创新的、灵活的、勇敢的和独立的,并且有灵魂、激情和创造力。而管理者是深思熟虑的,权威的,咨询的,分析的,稳定的,并有理性,头脑和坚持”(Algahtani, 2014,第77页)。

阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group)执行主席马云(Jack Ma)相信,始终专注于创造新的机会的领导风格。在去年的一次会议上,他讨论了领导者如何需要智商(IQ)、情商(EQ)和爱商(LQ)。“马云说,他相信,人类将通过对自己的想象力和超越机器的能力充满信心,找到解决当今全球发展面临的最可怕问题的办法,包括贫困、气候变化和疾病”(MacLellan, 2017,第3段)。2)与传统的商业思维相比,这里的关注点和思维方式具有很大的变革性。它展示了对未来一代的愿景,即企业家在任何时候都需要关注什么。这与商业经理的思维方式完全不同,他们认为企业家必须成为领导者,才能确保企业不会陷入困境。除了授权和激励下一代,马云认为,必须从根本上规避工作场所存在的不道德行为(Yu, 2018)。再一次,在倡导此类行动时,马云展示了利用各种机会创造性地纠正职场做法的决心。这种创造性的行为更符合领导者的概念定义,而不是管理者。

A leader influences people towards attainment of goals in an organization and it is heavily involved with the human resources of the organization. The very nature of leadership is such that it is a people activity. Comparative management is associated with better problem solving and smooth maintenance for rendering every day activities. It would appear that leadership and management are two complete cornerstones. However, this is not the situation. As theory and research reviews show, leadership is a part of management behaviour and a leader is a manager. In this context when considering the role of an entrepreneur in their entrepreneurial activity, adebate can be conducted on whether an entrepreneur has to be a manager or a leader.

An entrepreneur as leader makes more sense, as the entrepreneur is the person who is on the lookout for opportunities to drive business growth. The primary motivation for the manager is control and stability, and for the entrepreneur, it is achievement and growth (Fairlie & Holleran, 2012). Intuitive development, creativity, innovation and risk-taking ability are associated with the entrepreneur (Wincent & Westerberg, 2005). The managerial traits of formal responsibility and routine complexity handling as Kotterman (2006) argues will not match the demands set for an entrepreneur. Leadership leads with a vision and motivates people towards change in order to pursue that vision (Kotterman, 2006). Change is inherently built in the case of leadership, whereas in management, routines and protocols are inherently built within it. “Researchers mention that the leader is inspiring, innovative, flexible, courageous and independent, and has a soul, the passion and the creativity. While the manager is deliberate, authoritative, consulting, analytical, and stabilizing, and has the rational, the mind, and the persistence” (Algahtani, 2014, p. 77).

Jack Ma, the executive chairperson of the Alibaba Group, believes in a leadership style that is focused on employing newer opportunities all the time. In a meet last year, he discusses how leaders need intelligent quotient (IQ), emotional quotient (EQ) and love quotient (LQ). “Ma said he believes humans will find solutions for the direst issues facing global development today, including poverty, climate change, and disease, by having confidence in their imaginations and their ability to out-think machines” (MacLellan, 2017, para. 2). The focus and way of thinking here are so transformative compared to traditional business thinking. It shows a vision for the future generation on what an entrepreneur needs to focus at all times. This is quite unlike how a business manager would think and reinstate the notion that the entrepreneur has to be a leader to make sure their business does not tank. In addition to empowering and inspiring future generations, Jack Ma believes that unethical practices present in the workplace have to be circumvented radically (Yu, 2018). Once again, in advocating for such actions, Jack Ma shows the drive to make use of opportunities to creatively correct workplace practices. This creative action falls in the conceptual definition of a leader more than a manager.

以上内容就是英国论文代写对企业家的角色分析与讨论。若要问英国论文代写哪家更专业可靠?论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且并使用正确的英语论文格式。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、assignment代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国essay格式:新西兰的社会契约

英国essay格式:新西兰的社会契约。在大多数政治社会文献中,社会契约的定义是,政府与人民签订的契约,人民声明他们将如何被管理的条款。在当今时代,新西兰的社会契约已经为政府和毛利人以及其他新西兰人之间更好的关系铺平了道路(Rivers, 2014)。社会契约不仅对教育系统有用,而且对国家的其他经济福利方面也是必要的因素。这表明,即使政府是国家所有政策的中心,人民也有一些自治权。因此,它为不同社区的人们和土地之间带来了更好的联系。接下来英国essay格式专家将为同学们分析下新西兰的社会契约。

在新西兰,由于《怀唐伊条约》,存在着明确的社会契约。它提高了新西兰的教育质量,因为人们能够从他们的文化中学习。在教育社会学中,土地与文化和传统的联系是研究对象。社会学和历史学的一般传统被纳入到背景中,这样,在那个教育系统中的学生尊重他们的传统,仍然对新的经验开放。

Lourie(2014)指出,国家的双文化政策发展确实很强。它早在1984年就由工党政府制定,人们认为工党政府在教育方面为毛利人民创造了更好的社会正义。在其开始时,重点是承认毛利族人民所遭受的不公正待遇,并确保通过该政策对他们所面临的任何社会或经济不平等进行调整。双文化教育政策实质上是帮助毛利人和更好地融入新西兰社会的一种形式。

“双文化教育政策被认为是解决义务教育部门Māori学生教育成绩不足的持续挑战的一种手段”(Codd, 2005, p.193)。双文化教育政策确实改变了毛利学生的社会状况。

特别是在过去的20年里,人们观察到,从新西兰的单一文化体系到双文化体系给毛利人带来了许多有益的影响。现在有许多毛利教育工作者,他们是毛利儿童的过渡和教育激励者。一个尊重tereo(毛利语言)和nga tikanga毛利(毛利文化)的教育系统并不存在(Thrupp, 1999)。

根据Peters和Marshall(1989)的研究,支持毛利人和更多新西兰人口的教育政策制定历史在四个州进行。根据本研究,这两个阶段分别是同化阶段和负离子阶段、文化差异阶段、多元文化主义和双文化主义。现在在同化阶段的教育政策制定中,重点是要有一个主导系统,教育规则是由主导种族制定的,其他所有人都被同化了。这里提出了更好的聚合。然而,这导致了文化剥夺的情况,学生,特别是毛利人,失去了对文化和传统的接触。人们再次看到,新西兰通过解决毛利儿童的问题和引进对非白族文化的白族容忍的概念,来应对其在教育方面面临的社会挑战。当时,对其他宗教或少数民族的宽容是社会学的一个重要概念。然而,随着时间的推移,这个国家开始理解双文化主义是改善教育的一种方式。目前,毛利人开启了教育的双文化阶段,对毛利人教育的框架理解变得更加容易(Robinson et al., 1996;Spoonley, 1999)。作为教育社会契约的重要组成部分,双文化主义带来了四个主要的好处。这些都被认为在教育系统中发挥了非常积极的作用。

In New Zealand, an explicit social contract exists because of the Treaty of Waitangi. It has improved the quality of education in New Zealand as people are able to learn from their culture. In sociology of education, the connections to culture and tradition of the land are studies. General traditions in sociology and historyare drawn into context so that students in that educational system respect their traditions and are still open to newer experiences.

Lourie (2014) stated the bicultural policy development in the country was indeed a strong one. It was developed as early as in 1984 by the Labour Government which was observed to have created better social justice in education for the Maori people. In the beginning of its inception, the focus was to acknowledge the injustice that wassuffered by the Maori people and ensure that any social or economic inequality which they faced as a consequence was adjusted for through the policy. The bicultural education policy was in essence a form of helping aspect for the Maoris and for better integration of the New Zealand society.

“Bicultural education policy is thought to be a means of addressing the ongoing challenge of educational underachievement of Māori students in the compulsory schooling sector” (Codd, 2005, p.193). Bicultural education policy did indeed change the social landscape for Maori students.

In the last 20 years in particular, it has been observed that from the NZ monocultural system to the bicultural system has resulted in much beneficial impact for Maoris. Many Maori educators are present now who serve as a transition and educational motivator for Maori children. A schooling system that respect the tereo (the Maori language) and the nga tikanga Maori (the Maori culture) are not present (Thrupp, 1999).

The history of educational policy making for supporting the Maoris and the greater New Zealand population has been carried out in four states according to researchers Peters and Marshall (1989). According to this research, the phases are assimilation phase and interanion phase, the cultural difference phase, multiculturalism and biculturalism. Now in the educational policy making in assimilation phase, the focus was on having a dominant system where educational rules were made up by the dominant race and everyone else was assimilated into it. Better aggregation was proposed to be achieved here. However, this led to cultural deprivation situation where the students, especially the Maoris in particular were losing their touch of cultural, their tradition etc. Once again, New Zealand was seen to rise to meet its social challenged when it comes to education by addressing the problems of the Maori child and introduced the concept of Pakehatolerance of non-Pakeha culture. This was a time when tolerance for other religions or minorities and for the others was a big concept in sociology. However, over time, the country came to understand biculturalism as the way to improve education. In the current, Maori initiated bicultural stage of education, it has become easier to frame understanding of Maori education (Robinson et al., 1996; Spoonley, 1999). Biculturalism which is a major part of the social contract in education has resulted in four key benefits. These are considered as having played a very positive role in educational system。

以上内容就是英国essay格式对新西兰的社会契约分析。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成英语论文与作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且并使用正确的essay格式。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、assignment代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国论文格式:儿童的亲社会行为

英国论文格式:儿童的亲社会行为。儿童的亲社会行为是先天和后天共同作用的结果,即父母教养方式和基因在儿童亲社会行为的发展中都起着重要作用。先天因素包括基因和遗传因素,而后天因素则与社会环境和父母的教养方式有关。先天与后天之争是心理学中最古老的争论之一。一些心理学家强调天性在儿童发展中的作用,而另一些心理学家则强调后天培养在儿童发展中的作用。接下来英国论文代写将对儿童的亲社会行为做以下分析与讨论。

生物因素和亲社会行为:许多生物学家和心理学家认为,人类从基因上就倾向于从事亲社会行为。从进化的角度来看,亲社会的行为确保了生存(人类在相互帮助时能够找到食物和对抗敌人)。互相帮助的人类生存下来并繁衍后代,而其他人却无法生存。进化论的观点不能解释同情心、同理心和亲社会行为中存在的个体差异。这些行为的个体差异可以归因于遗传因素。研究表明同卵双胞胎在亲社会行为上比异卵双胞胎表现出更多的相似性。此外,研究得出结论,亲社会行为中遗传因素的作用随着年龄的增长而增加。被称为催产素的荷尔蒙在亲社会行为中起作用。这种激素与伴侣关系、同理心和父母依恋有关(Siegler, DeLoache & Eisenberg, 2003)。

此外,神经递质血清素在调节亲社会行为方面发挥着重要作用。血清素功能与攻击性和暴力行为呈负相关,而与从属行为呈正相关。导致血清素水平增加的活动和干预活动增加了社会交往行为。因此,血清素水平可以影响社会决策和亲社会行为(Rilling & Sanfey, 2011)。

环境和亲社会行为:有几个因素影响儿童的亲社会行为:父母和教师为亲社会行为树立榜样,给予儿童参与亲社会行为的机会,管教儿童并使他们参与亲社会活动。父母教养方式和学校环境对亲社会行为有重要影响。

根据社会学习理论,孩子通过观察他人来学习。这个理论可以解释儿童如何学习亲社会行为。孩子会模仿父母和老师的亲社会行为。家长和老师是孩子观察和学习亲社会行为的榜样。父母是孩子生活中极具影响力的榜样。他们可以通过讨论和实践他们所宣扬的东西来帮助孩子学习价值观和行为(Eisenberg, Spinrad & Knafo‐Noam, 2015)。

Biological factors and prosocial behaviours: many biologist and psychologist debate that humans are genetically predisposed to engage in prosocial behaviours. From evolutionary perspective, engaging in prosocial behaviours ensured survival (humans where able to find food and fight enemies when they gave assistance to one another). Humans who helped each other survived and reproduced while others were not able to survive. Evolutionary perspective does not explain the individual differences that exist in sympathy, empathy and prosocial behaviours. The individual differences in these behaviours can be attributed to genetic factors. Studies have shown that identical twins show more similarity in prosocial behaviours as compared to non-identical twins. Moreover, studies have concluded that role of genetic factors in prosocial behaviour increases with age. Hormone known as Oxytocin plays role in prosocial behaviours. This hormone is involved in pair bonding, empathy and parental attachment (Siegler, DeLoache & Eisenberg, 2003).

In addition, neurotransmitter serotonin is known to play important role in regulating prosocial behaviour. Serotonin function has shown negative relationship with aggressive and violent behaviour whereas it shows positive association with affiliative behaviours. Activities and interventions that result in increase in serotonin level and activity increase social affiliative behaviours. Serotonin level, therefore, can influence social decision making and prosocial behaviours (Rilling & Sanfey, 2011).

Environment and prosocial behaviour: there are several factors that influence prosocial behaviours in children: modelling of prosocial behaviours by parents and teachers, giving children opportunities to engage in prosocial behaviours and discipline children and making them to prosocial activities. Parenting style and school environment play an important role in prosocial behaviours.

As per the social learning theories, children learn by observing others. This theory can explain how children learn prosocial behaviours. Children imitate the prosocial behaviours of their parent figures and teachers. Parents and teachers act as models for children to observe and learn prosocial behaviours. Parents are extremely influential models in children’s lives. They can aid their children learn values and behaviours by means of discussion and practicing what they preach (Eisenberg, Spinrad & Knafo‐Noam, 2015).

以上内容就是英国论文代写专家对儿童的亲社会行为分析。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成英语论文与作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且并使用正确的英国论文格式。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、assignment代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国论文代写:雀巢的危机管理分析

英国论文代写:雀巢的危机管理分析。危机管理因情况而异,实践的一些原则可以从案例研究中得到理解。为此,采用了案例研究分析方法。在这个分析中,将会讨论雀巢公司在印度所面临的危机,以及他们是如何通过坚持危机管理的原则来克服危机的。详细阐述了社会防卫理论、高可靠性组织理论和心理契约理论。这个例子说明了公司在看似灾难性的事件之后如何恢复元气。接下来英国论文代写专家将对雀巢的危机管理分析如下。

监管机构报告称,美极产品的味精和铅含量是允许水平的17倍。2015年11月,该产品再次上市。然而,产品的销售深受丑闻的影响。公司的销售额慢慢下降,公司的负面需求开始上升。这些产品的禁令导致该公司召回了价值3200万印度卢比的库存,并进一步发现价值6400万印度卢比的库存。该公司支付了200万印度卢比来焚烧这些产品。在这一过程中,雀巢的品牌资产受到了负面影响。该公司失去了多年来积累的信誉和正面品牌。公司的品牌形象作为一个整体被玷污了,因为这一事件(Roy, Tata和Parsad, 2018年)。该公司使用了许多技术,并彻底解决了一些系统性问题,试图重建消费者利基市场。该公司在印度尚未完全从2015年的危机中恢复过来。尽管如此,他们已经能够逐步建立产品的销售。运用危机生命周期管理的方法,分析了公司面临的危机。

美极是雀巢的产品。美极方便面是印度的一种著名产品。方便面占据了印度90%以上的市场份额。市场主导地位一直持续到印度政府2015年禁止销售该产品(罗伊、塔塔和帕萨德,2018年)。直到美极危机之前,雀巢公司被认为是一个高可靠性的公司。他们总是能够发展和专注于小问题的失败被给予重要的过去。该公司能够获得消费者的惠顾,并基于此与投资者没有问题。鉴于该公司的品牌资产和与该公司的巨大贸易量,可以暗示该公司需要对生产细节给予适当的关注。雀巢品牌是一个在全国范围内运营的品牌。这是一个强制性的要求,公司必须有统一的生产,以满足形势的需要。这是一个高度复杂的组织,有很多等级(Bernstein, 2011)。组织的复杂性在于它有许多潜在的失败来源。该公司必须具备识别新兴异常现象的敏锐性。该公司的报告是基于过去的经验和他们的盲目相信,消费者会继续购买这些产品。这些因素导致公司面临问题,导致系统受到影响,公司面临基于这些因素的有形损失。下面详细介绍了公司危机的生命周期以及公司为解决危机管理所做的努力。

Maggi was reported by the regulators that the product had 17 times the permissible level of monosodium glutamate and lead. Then the product was re-launched in November 2015. However, the product sales were deeply impacted by the scandal. The sales of the company slowly dwindled and the rise of the negative demand of the company started to arise. The bans of the products caused the company to recall stocks that were worth 32 million Indian rupees and the company was further find for 64 million Indian rupees. The company paid 2 million Indian rupees to actually burn the products. The brand equity of Nestle was impacted negatively in this process. The company lost its credibility and positive branding it had collated over the years. The company’s brand images as a whole were tarnished owing to this event (Roy, Tata and Parsad, 2018). The company used a number of techniques and overhauled some of its systemic issues to try and rebuild the consumer niche. The company has not fully recovered in India from the crisis in 2015. Nevertheless, they have been able to gradually build the sales of the product. The crisis encountered by the company is analyzed by the use of the Crisis Life cycle management.

Maggi is a Nestle product. The Maggi instant noodle was a famous product in India. The instant noodles had a market share of more than 90% of the India. The market domination continued until Indian government imposed a ban on selling the product 2015 (Roy, Tata and Parsad, 2018). Up until the Maggi crisis, Nestle Company was considered to be a high reliability company. They were always able to develop and focus on small issues of failure was given importance in the past. The company was able to gain consumer patronage and based on which had no issues with the investors. Given the brand equity of the company and the sheer volume of trade with the company, it can be alluded that the company needed to be giving proper attention to the production details. The Nestle brand was a brand that operated across the nation. It was a mandatory requirement that the company had to have uniformity in production to meet the demand of the situation. It was a highly complex organization that had a lot of hierarchy levels (Bernstein, 2011).The complexity of the organization is that it had numerous potential sources of failure. The company must have the acumen to identity the emerging anomalies. The company was blindsided with the reports based on past experience and their blind belief that the consumers would continue to buy the products. These caused the company to face issues that caused the system to be impacted and the company faced tangible losses based on these factors. The life cycle of the company crisis and the efforts taken by the company to address the crisis management have been detailed in the following.

以上内容就是英国论文代写专家对雀巢的危机管理分析。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成英语论文与作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且与合理的论文代写价格。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、assignment代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国论文代写:以色列贸易模式

英国论文代写:以色列贸易模式。以色列是美国在商业、金融投资、经济发展和战争装备方面最大的盟友之一。美国史无前例地支持以色列,因为以色列的目的是打击阿拉伯国家的反建制势力。以色列与美国和欧盟的贸易关系是非凡的,考虑到它所占据的土地是灰暗的,而且它缺乏自然资源。在接下来的内容中,英国论文代写专家对对以色列贸易模式进行以下分析。

以色列正在以稳定的速度增长,它有800 – 900万人口,对大众消费的需求较少,因此它专注于优质产品的消费。这类产品在美国和欧盟都有很大的市场。因此,它们的贸易关系在这些双边协议中以进口为导向的性质而著称。与此同时,中国正在努力成为一个主要的服务经济出口国,因为它已经开发了一些开创性的技术发明,如激光边境发明,保卫其与巴勒斯坦和阿拉伯国家的边境。该公司正在向印度出口同样的技术,预计未来5年,该公司将因此获得可观的收入。

预计此举将平衡中美关系,因为美国因中国保守的市场结构而厌恶中国产品。中国政府正在鼓励更多的国内投资,开放一个由政府机构支持的大型风险投资行业。初创企业在以色列越来越普遍,因此减少了对进口产品和服务的需求,取而代之的是国内投资和生产。尽管国土面积小,以色列在贸易关系、战争装备、世界上最好的军队和情报机构以及在农业产量提高方面的强大创新方面已经超过了许多大国。以色列保持了强劲的贸易平衡,不允许贸易赤字影响和干预其国内投资环境。随着时间的推移,考虑到这个国家精明的政治领导,以及始终保持警惕的当局和机构,这只会更好。

虽然中国已经掌握了一些服务行业,但其自然资源的缺乏和进口依赖将使其未来的贸易一直令人担忧。这种担忧将决定其未来双边关系的性质和特征。为了减轻对少数几个大国的公开依赖所带来的影响,中国正在使其对亚洲国家的依赖和贸易伙伴关系多样化,并一直保持着友好的关系。总的来说,以色列成功地平衡了它的敌人和朋友,未来的经济前景看起来相当光明。

Israel is growing at a stable pace, and with its 8-9 million population, it has less requirement for mass consumption, hence it focuses on quality products consumption. These type of products is largely available in the US and EU. Therefore, their trade relationship is distinguished by its import oriented nature in these bilateral agreements. At the same time, it is striving to become a major service economy exporter, because it has developed some path breaking technology inventions like the laser border inventions guarding its borders with Palestine and Arab countries. It is exporting the same technology to India, for which it is expected to earn significant income over the period of next five years.

It is expected to balance its relationship with China, as US is averse to Chinese products because of its conservative market structure. It is encouraging more domestic investments with the opening up of a large venture capital industry supported by government bodies. Start-ups are becoming more normal in Israel, hence reducing its need to import products and services, to be replaced with domestic investments and production. Despite its small land size, Israel has been able to surpass many large nations in terms of trade relationship, warfare equipment, world best army and intelligence agencies and its strong innovation in agriculture yield enhancement. Israel has maintained a strong balance of trade and not allowed trade deficit to affect and intervene its domestic investment environment. With time, it is only to be better considering the country’s shrewd political leadership, and ever alert authorities and agencies.

Although it has mastered over some service industry sectors, its lack of natural resources and import dependence shall keep worrying its future trade. This worry will define the nature and character of its future bilateral relationships. To mitigate the impact of overt dependence on few large nations, it is diversifying its dependence and trade partnership with Asian nations and it has maintained cordial relationships. Israel, overall, has been successful in balancing its enemies and friends and economic prospects look reasonably brighter for the future.

以上内容就是英国论文代写专家对以色列贸易模式的分析。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成英语论文与作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且与合理的论文代写价格。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、assignment代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国论文代写:化妆品广告分析

英国论文代写:化妆品广告分析。化妆品是用来展现外表的美丽的。尽管世界上对真正的美丽有很多激动人心的讨论,但护肤产品在全球范围内被评价为价值240亿美元的生意。由于全球化的到来,各公司试图在市场上建立一个利基消费者基础。一些公司利用人们的不安全感和他们防止衰老的需要作为一种营销趋势。接下来英国论文代写专家将对化妆品广告进行以下分析。

耶根的广告在视频中谈到了“看起来自然”的皮肤。两个美丽的女人似乎在度假享受阳光。据说需要杰根斯产品的两名女性没有皱纹或疤痕。他们生来就是美的目标。他们拥有近乎完美的皮肤和不可思议的长、光滑、匀称的身体。她们有一头丝质的头发,她们的腰是如此之小,不可能是一个正常的女人。这些女人的牙齿白得不可思议。她们几乎是不真实的女人。她们可能只占世界女性人口的不到1%。

一个女人走到他们面前,问他们的皮肤会怎么样。正如上图所示,这两个女人似乎对自己的美丽和皮肤保护缺乏安全感。穿着黄色衬衫的女人喋喋不休地谈论着未来可能出现的皮肤问题,以及如何使用商业产品来保护皮肤。两个女人用了这些产品,在最后的画面中看起来一模一样。最后,广告最后讨论了自然美,以及如何使用Jergens的产品可以让它们保持自然和美丽。在末尾添加了一个永久的美丽条款。

可以看出,这幅画中所有的人物都是女性。这似乎暗示了女性谈论如何保持美丽,并一直在寻找这样的努力。

观众显然被屏幕上的美女形象所吸引。这些女性在比喻上应该等同于普通女性或她们的目标受众。对我来说很明显的一件事就是社会上的女人似乎总是根据外表来评价别人。所谓的支持黄色女性正在培养一种意识形态,即一个人不使用商业产品就永远不可能完美。有仔细的分割和大量的思考过程,这是集中在图像。穿黄色衣服的女士在人群中脱颖而出,因为人们认为她是在向其他女性展示重要的皮肤保护措施。视频广告中的其他角色都与背景颜色融为一体。很明显,在颜色混合中使用的黄色是为了关注女性,她为女性如何保护皮肤免受外部太阳伤害提供了重要的建议。在倒数第二个场景中,黄衣服的女士开玩笑说她很孤独,想和其他女人一起玩。这似乎也是创作者的一种努力,让黄色的女士关注一个事实,即当女性也感到孤独时,她们可以与某人产生共鸣。这则广告看似无害,却强化了关于美貌和社会期望的所有性别刻板印象。尽管这些广告中没有男人,但它似乎专注于如何创造外在美。很明显,女性是美丽的女人,她们不需要任何商业产品来保持她们的美丽。然而,有一种意识形态正在形成,那就是一个人永远不会足够漂亮,如果他们足够漂亮,他们最终会失去它。占主导地位的意识形态是,有一个资本主义的焦点,女性永远不可能完美。

大众传媒在广告中对女性的物化并不是一个新概念。这个广告似乎强化了这种意识形态。他们是培养这种意识形态的体系的一部分。女性的谬论还有其他不同的部分。一般的女性或少女都知道自己永远不可能像她们那样,但她们会认为自己也可以模仿她们的行为来获得那种美丽。

Jergen’s advertisement was talking about “natural looking” skin in the video. Two beautiful women are seemingly in a vacation enjoying the sun. The two women who supposedly need the Jergens product have no wrinkles or scars. They are created to be the target for beauty. They have almost perfect skin and have impossible long, smooth, and shapely bodies. They have a head of silky hair and their waist is so small that it is not possible for a normal woman. The teeth of the women are beyond white. They are almost unreal women. They would probably make up less than 1 percent of the world population of women.

A woman comes up to them and asks them about what would happen to their skin. As shown in the picture above, the two women develop a seeming insecurity about their beauty and protection of the skin. The woman who is wearing the yellow shirt goes on harping about the possible issues of their skin in future and about how they can protect it using the commercial product. The two women use those products and seem exactly the same in the final frame. Finally, the advertisements end with discussion about natural beauty and how using the Jergens product would make them stay natural and pretty. There is a forever beauty clause that is added towards the end.

It can be observed that all the characters in the picture are women. It seems to foster an implied message of what woman talk about retaining their beauty and is constantly on the lookout for such efforts.

The viewer is apparently transported to visual imagery of beautiful women on screen. These women are supposed to be metaphorically equivalent to the average women or their target audience. The one thing that really obvious to me is how the women in the society seem to constantly sum the other person based on looks. The so called supportive women in yellow were fostering the ideology that one can never be perfect without the use of the commercial products. There is careful segmentation and a lot of thought process that is focused on the imagery. The lady in yellow is made to stand out from the crowd, as it is assumed that she is making important skin protection points to the other women. The other characters in the video ad are made to blend in with the background colors. It is evident that the yellow color used in the color mixing was to focus on the woman who is providing the important advises as to how a woman can protect her skin from external sun damage. In the penultimate scene, the lady in yellow is made to joke about how lonely she is and wants to hang out with the other women. This also is a seeming effort by the creators to make the lady in yellow focus on the fact that women can identify with someone when they are also feeling alone. This advertisement is a seemingly innocuous advertisement that reinforces every gender stereotype about beauty and society expectations. Even though there is no man for these advertisements, it seems to focus on how the exterior beauty if created. It is pretty obvious that the women are beautiful women who need not have any commercial products to retain their beauty. However, there is fostering of the ideology that one can never be pretty enough and if they were they would lose it eventually. The dominant ideology is that there is a capitalism focus which women can never be perfect.

The objectification of women in advertisement by mass media is not a new concept. This advertisement seemingly reinforces this ideology. They are a part of the system that fosters this ideology. There is a different remainder of the fallacies of the women. An average woman or adolescent girl knows that they can never really look like them, but they are made to assume that they could also imitate their actions to get that beauty.

以上内容就是英国论文代写专家对化妆品广告的分析。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成英语论文与作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且与合理的论文代写价格。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、毕业论文代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

论文代写:电影《冰雪奇缘》分析

论文代写:电影《冰雪奇缘》分析。在这个分析中,论文代写将会探讨电影《阿拉丁》(1992)和《冰雪奇缘》(2013)中父权观念的变化以及童话故事的方方面面。可以看出,这两部电影叙事主题的变化反映了这两部电影叙事主题的变化。我们可以理解这二十年来所讨论的社会变化。在这两部看似无害的儿童电影中,所宣称的现有的社会意识形态发生了变化。这些可以通过探究来理解在社会中观察到的社会变化。接下来论文代写专家将对电影《冰雪奇缘》进行以下分析。

“电影作为一个‘梦想机器’是一个熟悉的概念,暗示着一个幻想的领域,愿望的实现”(Sabbadini, 2005)。

童话实际上是一种意识形态的象征,是一种存在于社会中的通俗叙事主题。它们实际上是社会中人的道德和行为的化身。这些被发现是基于社会中被接受的叙事而不断变化的(Bottigheimer, 2014)。

可以说,人类问题的真相源于个体与心灵的接触。不可忽视的是,现在有一种进步的文化,它反映了社会中不断变化的文化。当王室的长子是女孩时,她们可以像男孩一样发挥作用。然而,童话故事的创作往往是关于幻想的生活方式,它试图创造一个人在现实生活中遭受贬低的人物形象。在过去的叙事结构中,女孩是处于困境中的少女。他们经常被怪物或黏糊糊的野兽带走。女孩们最后被主人公救了。在所有的叙事结构中都可以观察到隐含的真理。最初是暗指故事中的女孩需要被拯救,需要一个男性伙伴来拯救她们的愿望,这是这些商店的一个突出方面。童话故事的核心相似之处在于,它们突袭了社会政治对立的更强硬的基础。这些通常表现在前现代欧洲人的意识形态上。女性主义意识形态的兴起、多样性以及进步思想的融合,使得人们更加关注故事中典型女孩角色的变化。在这个过程中可以观察到隐含的个性化(Zipes, 2014)。荣格认为,个性化存在于人类发展的核心过程中。必须包含存在于每个人身上的神秘和精神领域(Tan, 2013)。荣格心理学可以用来理解社会中发生的个性化以及发展个体心理生活的重要性。

从《冰雪奇缘》(Frozen)和《阿拉丁》(Aladdin)的故事中,我们可以清楚地看到这些意识形态是如何被解析到魔法王国的。具有讽刺意味的是,这也是现代社会普遍存在的现实意识形态的一部分。这些童话故事是人们在日常生活中遇到的真实的社会问题,以及人们试图解决他们个人问题的方式。女性主义的暗喻与社会中不断变化的动态叙事主题在这些结构中流露出来。我们需要深入研究这些问题,以理解其微妙的含义。

“Cinema as a ‘dream machine’ is a familiar notion, implying a realm of fantasy, of wish-fulfilment” (Sabbadini, 2005).

Fairy tales are actually the symbolization of the ideology and the popular narrative themes that are existed in the society. They are actually the personification of the morality and the behaviour of the people in the society. These are found to be constantly changing based on the accepted narratives in society (Bottigheimer, 2014).

It can be argued that the truth in the human problems arise from the engagement of the individuals with the psyche. It cannot be discounted that a progressive culture is present that reflects upon the culture that is ever so changing in the society. When primogeniture of the royal families was girls, they were able to function just as well as the boys. However, the creation of fairy tales are often about fancy lifestyle and it tries to create a persona of the devaluation that an individual suffers in real life. In the past narrative structures, the girls were the damsel in distress. They were often taken away by monsters or slimy beasts. The girls were saved in the end by the protagonist. An implied truth can be observed in all of the narrative structure. It was originally alluded that the girls in the story needed to be rescued and the need for a male counterpart to save their aspirations were made to be a prominent aspect of these stores. The core analogy of the fairy tales is that they foray in to the tougher substrate of the socio-political opposition. These are usually manifested from the pre-modern European people ideology. The rise of the feminist ideology, diversity and the amalgamation of progressive thoughts have made the people to be more focused on the changing role of the typical girl in a story. Implied individuation is observed in this process (Zipes, 2014). According to Jung, it stated that the individuation that exists in the central process of human development. It is imperative to encompass the mystical and spiritual areas that are present in each person (Tan, 2013). The Jungian psychology can be used to comprehend the individuation that occurs in the society and the importance of developing the life of the psyche of the individual.

From the story of Frozen and Aladdin, it is evident as to how these ideologies have been parsed into the enchanted realms. Ironically, it is also a part of the modern day real ideology that pervades the society. These fairy tales are the real social issues that the people encounter on a daily basis and the ways in which the people try to address their individual issues. The hidden analogy of feminism and the changing dynamic narrative theme in the society are exuded in these structures. These need to be probed to understand the nuanced implications.

以上内容就是论文代写对电影《冰雪奇缘》分析。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成英语论文与作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且与合理的论文代写价格。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、毕业论文代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国代写essay:交易风险

英国代写essay:交易风险。交易风险是与货币估值在时间上的延迟波动相关的风险类型。如果签订合同的时间与完成交易结算的日期之间有较大的时间差,风险就会增加。风险增加的原因是,随着时间的增加,发生更多波动的机会。虽然由于交易货币的货币估值波动而承担许多风险,但交易风险仍然是最常见的归因于外币风险的风险。这个名字本身就暗示了它是由交易产生的风险。接下来英国代写essay将对交易风险进行分析与讨论。

在这个全球化的时代,越来越多的商业组织开始将他们的工作外包到世界上遥远的地方,以便以最优惠的价格获得最好的服务器和商品。然而,由于市场是一个非常不稳定的地方,因此企业经营容易发生很大的波动,这种经营方式大大增加了企业的风险。因此,公司必须随时准备吸收这种波动风险,以确保运营的顺利运行(Chang, 2016)。

造成这种风险的原因是一样的,但其影响是不同的。折算风险是指企业和企业实体对资产负债表中的资产、负债等要素的估值波动所承担的风险。如果公司遵循将部分资产和负债以外币计价的政策,也就是众所周知的会计风险,折算风险的机会就会增加。

与其他两个列出的风险相比,经济风险的影响更大,意义也更重大。这样的风险敞口直接影响公司的价值。这是因为公司的价值和净值与以外币进行的货币交易相关。

如果公司或组织所产生的未来现金流的价值是基于外币的,那么对外汇风险的担忧就会增加。让我们举个例子,美国和中国之间有一笔生意。一家中国公司负责向一家美国公司供应一些原材料。根据合同,费用在交易之日起一个月内结清。这一个月的缺口对双方的交易者来说都是极其重要的,因为在这段时间内货币的市场价值会波动。由于美国公司预期现金流出,因此它将承担现金流出的风险,而现金流入的风险将由中国商人承担,因为他预计未来会有现金流入。在这种情况下,我们观察到这两家公司都很容易受到货币波动和变化的影响。因此,它有可能在未来招致一些额外的意外的利润或损失。从事国际贸易和进出口业务的贸易商最容易受到货币波动风险的影响。

While there are many risks that are borne due to fluctuation in monetary valuation of trading currencies, still the transaction exposure is the most common risk attributed to foreign currency exposure. The name itself implies that it is risk borne out of transaction. In this era of globalisation, more and more business organisation shave started outsourcing their work to distant parts of the world in order to get best servers and goods at best prices. However, such a business practice has significantly increased the business risk as market is an extremely volatile place and hence business operations are prone to much fluctuation. Therefore, the company must stay prepared to absorb such fluctuation risks to ensure smooth functioning of the operation (Chang, 2016).

The cause of this risk is same but the impact changes. Translation risk is the risk borne by business houses and corporate entities on the fluctuation of its valuation of assets, liabilities and other elements of balance sheet. The chance of translation risk is accentuated if the company follows a policy of keeping certain part of its assets and liabilities in foreign currency and is much better known as accounting exposure.

Economic exposure is much more impactful and holds much more significance in comparison to the other two listed risks. Such an exposure affects directly the value of a firm. It is because the value and net worth of a firm is correlated to monetary transaction in foreign currencies.

The concern of foreign exchange exposure rises if the value of future cash flow to be generated by the company or an organization is based on foreign currencies. Let’s for example, there be a business between America and china. Chinese company is in charge of supplying some raw materials to an American Company. According to contract, the dues are settled within a month of transaction date. The one month gap is extremely crucial for both the traders as the market value of currencies can fluctuate during this time period. As American company expects an outflow of cash, hence it would bear cash outflow risk while on the other hand, cash inflow risk would be borne by the Chinese trader, as he expected future inflow of cash. In this situation, we observed that both these companies are prone to monetary fluctuations and changes. Hence, it leads to a possibility of incurring some extra unexpected profit or loss in future. The traders trading internationally and engaged in import and export business are most susceptible to such monetary fluctuation risks.

以上内容就是英国代写essay对交易风险的分析与讨论。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成essay作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且与合理的论文代写价格。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、毕业论文代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

英国论文代写价格:组织管理科学化

英国论文代写价格:组织管理科学化。管理作为一门科学,倡导标准化,在当今时代受到了挑战。科学管理的一大弊端是标准化。标准化导致了机械设备的发展,取代了劳动力,这导致了失业和社会问题。标准化和机械生产的产品不是那么有吸引力的地方,重点是定制。全球化已经将许多企业引入了竞争的环境中,他们与定制的产品竞争,以满足全球消费者的需求、本地需求和全球-本地需求。因此,各组织邀请多文化就业,以满足这些当地和全球的需求。接下来英国论文代写将对组织管理科学化进行分析与讨论。

因此,各组织邀请多文化就业,以满足这些当地和全球的需求。像劳动力一样,工作文化、招聘和培训实践等,都会改变组织文化。这种形式的多元文化环境无法在科学管理中得到欣赏,因为在科学管理中,重点是团体的主动性,工人的理解被简化为机器。工人,第三文化,背景和任何其他都是不必要的。Hofstede的维度等基于文化的理论优先帮助处于多元文化环境中的公司。例如,Hofstede基于国家的文化维度显示了一个以个人主义为导向的组织与接受集体主义的组织是如何相对立的(Hofstede Insights, 2018)。权力距离、规范导向、不确定性规避等方面都可以为组织所理解。科学的管理方法没有把重点放在这些方面。从我所经历的英国职场的组织文化来看,英国是一个权力距离较小的国家,这一点可以从组织内部管理者与下属的互动方式中看出。同样,英国的个人主义得分也很高,这表明英国培养个人发挥独特的作用,为社会做出贡献(Hofstede Insights, 2018)。这在组织中是可以观察到的,因为成员被赋予了职责,并被期望各自承担责任和责任。全球组织变得更加灵活,而不是生产标准化或管理标准化。科学管理的优点开始变成缺点。

作为科学的管理和在科学管理下讨论的相关利益成为不利因素。泰勒的论点的优点是,它有助于理解组织在提高生产和利润方面的角色。这一理论理解了盈利和利润管理的系统方式(泰勒,2004),也理解了在非常标准的工作环境中的工作满意度。根据科学方法,当工人被提供一套标准的工具、原材料、机器和明确的工作职责时,他们往往不会感到困惑或不确定,因此,他们更满意(Kelly, 1982)。与后现代主义时代组织格局的变化和组织理论的演进相比,科学管理的同样主张也存在一些缺陷。例如,科学管理强调盈利和管理(Hummel, 2014;Burrelland库珀,2015)。然而,在当前的经济中,重点已经从制造业转向以服务业为基础的经济。许多行业也是围绕服务范式创建的(Grönroos, 1994)。在这里,与管理服务质量相比,生产的增加并不那么重要。

人们也看到了社会学的变化点,管理层也没有为了最大限度地提高生产而命令控制工人。工人有劳动力,他们用劳动力与管理讨价还价(考虑前面提到的,当有标准化时,工人会更满意)。在工作不确定、战争和福利管理情况下,当工人对工作的中心目标和定义的生产团队感到满意时,这是真的(韦伯斯特,2014;舱口,2018)。然而,就目前而言,一套标准的工具和过程将不能满足工人。关于工作场所的满意度,员工必须关注很多事情,需要一定程度的自主权来做决定。例如,我个人的经验是,上学的时候,我在一家餐厅兼职做一线员工,需要在现场做一些决定。依靠一套既定的程序来处理意想不到的问题也可能导致工作中出现问题;在这种情况下,既不能有效地应用科学的管理理论,也不能实现相关的利益。

Organizations hence invite multicultural employment to meet these local and global needs. Like the workforce, the work culture, the hiring and training practices, etc., will change the organizational culture. This form of multicultural environment cannot be appreciated in scientific management where the focus is on group initiatives, and worker understanding is reduced to a machine. The worker, third culture, background and any other are not necessary. Culture-based theories like Hofstede’s dimensions take precedence for assisting companies in their multicultural environments. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions based on nations, for instance, show how individualism-oriented an organization is as opposed to embracing collectivism (Hofstede Insights, 2018). Aspects of power distance, normative oriented, uncertainty avoidance, and more are understood for the organization. The scientific management approach did not focus on these aspects. Considering the organizational culture of the workplace in the UK that I experienced, the UK is a country with less power distance, and this is observed in the way managers interact with subordinates within the organization. Similarly, the UK has a high individualist score indicating that the country trains individuals to play a unique role and contribute to society (Hofstede Insights, 2018). This is observed in the organization, as members are given duties and expected to take up responsibility and accountability individually. Instead of standardization of production, or standardization for management, global organizations became more flexible. The very pros of scientific management was starting to become cons.

Management as science and the associated benefits that were discussed under scientific management became disadvantages. Merits of Taylor’s argument were that it helps to understand the organization’s role in improving their production and profits. A systematic way of profit-making and profit management was understood with this theory (Taylor, 2004), and also, an understanding of job satisfaction in a very standard work environment. According to the scientific method, when workers are provided with a standard set of tools, raw materials, machines and defined job duties, then they tend not to be confused or uncertain, and hence, they are more satisfied (Kelly, 1982). The same pros of scientific management had some flaws when considering against the changing landscape of organizations and evolving organizations theories in the postmodernism times. For instance, profit-making and management are highlighted in scientific management (Hummel, 2014; Burrelland Cooper, 2015). However, in current economies, the focus has shifted from manufacturing to service-based. Many industries are created around the service paradigm, as well (Grönroos, 1994). Here, the increase of production is not given that much importance as compared to managing service quality.

Sociological change points were viewed, as well, and the management did not dictate control over workers to maximize production. Workers had labor power, which they used to bargain with the management (consider the pro presented earlier of how workers will be more satisfied when there is standardization). This was true during the time when workers were satisfied with working on central objectives and defined production teams during a time of job uncertainty, war, and welfare management situations (Webster, 2014; Hatch, 2018). However, as of present times, a standard set of tools and processes will not satisfy the worker. With respect to satisfaction in the workplace, the worker has to focus on many things and needs some degree of autonomy to make their decisions. For instance, my personal experience is that I worked part-time as a front-line employee in a restaurant during school days, and it was necessary to make some on-the-spot decisions. Relying on a defined set of routines to handle unexpected problems could also result in issues in the workplace; in such cases, neither can the scientific management theory be applied productively nor can the associated benefits be realized.

以上内容就是英国论文代写对组织管理科学的分析与讨论。如果同学们没有足够的时间来完成英语论文与作业,论文代写推荐留学生选择英国论文代写Advancedthesis服务。因为其服务公司的论文创作专家团队由高素质和经验丰富的学术作家组成,保障论文创作质量且与合理的论文代写价格。除此之外,还为留学生提供essay代写、毕业论文代写、硕士论文代写等服务,从而让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!